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the commercial and diplomatic influence of the Roman empire reached far beyond the borders of the empire. The Roman government also established various forms of over lordship over various states that were not part of any roman provinces. So the limits of Roman power are often hard to determine with certainty. When Rome conquered Egypt in 30 BC, Egyptian ...


Both variants are possible. In the variant with side protections, the soldiers at the flanks would hold their shields to their sides. This made the top protection a bit worse and reduced mobility, but provided better protection. Sometimes soldieirs at the rear of the formation would also walk sideways to keep the back protected as well. No one is carrying ...


The Romans apparently had nicknames (of a sort) known as agnomen: Thus for instance Publius Cornelius Scipio had the agnomen Africanus from his military victories.


I think the ancients did produce purple dye via admixture. Various challenges with that approach (and purple dyes in general) likely affected its historical ubiquity or our perception of that ubiquity. Regarding your specific sub-questions: Though challenging, ancient humans have mixed dye components to create purple dye, however, more complex factors ...

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