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33

The short answer to your question is that the general avoidance of consuming pork meat is not unique to Islam, and dates back at least roughly to the ancient Egyptians. The oldest confirmed evidence of pigs domesticated and kept for pork meat come from Hallan Cemi in Southeastern Anatolia from about 8000 BC. Shortly thereafter, the consumption of pork ...


24

Because they believed their infant would have a better chance of surviving in the desert. The child mortality rate from disease and malnutrition in Arab settlements was horrendously high, and it was believed that sending the child into the healthier environment of the desert increased the child's chance of survival. - Gabriel, Richard A. Muhammad: ...


17

Muhammad was a member of the Quraish tribe, which controlled the Kaaba in Mecca. Prior to Islam, the Kaaba was an important pagan pilgrimage site. So that suggests at least what his cousins and extended family may have believed. Today the Kaaba is the official direction of Muslim prayer and all mosques and prayer locations will have a qibla to orient the ...


17

Short answer Pre-Islamic Arabians were polytheistic, worshiping 360 gods; the chief god was the moon-god. They later became monotheistic because of Muhammad. Long answer In 1944, Gertrude Caton-Thompson (1888-1885), an influential English archaeologist, discovered a temple of the moon-god in southern Arabia. The symbols of the crescent moon and no less ...


16

Translation of Qu'ran was always problematic question in Islamic theology. In Islamic world there is doctrine called I'jaz that holds that Qu'ran is miraculous, both in content and in form and that no human speech can match. According to I'jaz Muslims oppose to text from Qu'ran be reproduced in another language or speech. Also there are some words which have ...


15

I take your question as "just before the advent of Muhammad." Therefore I will not delve into ancient history, and limit the answer to late-antiquity and early Middle Ages. First of all we have to note that people in the Arabic Peninsula could (and can) be divided geographically between the (mostly) arid North (notwithstanding oases and narrow coastal ...


15

It's not a full answer, but if you're interested by medieval Arabic travels, the unavoidable reference is Ibn Baṭūṭah. In his Rihla, he describes three travels he made during the 14th century : from Tangiers to middle-East, with a travel along the East coast of Africa, down to Zanbar and Kilwa. (map here) from Mecca to Beijing, and back, through Eastern ...


13

To address Mark C Wallace's point, being ethnically Arabic and speaking the Arabic language are not the same thing. Arabic people existed long before the language we now call Arabic developed, albeit we tend not to refer to them as Arabic until the era of the spread of Islam and the Arabic language. This is not a detailed answer, and it relies on Wikipedia (...


12

The Wahhabi ideology started as a revivalist movement (return to the roots) and quickly became strongly conservative, emphasizing intolerance not just to other religions, but to other variants of Islam. This provides a tool for dealing with the dissenters (accuse them of deviations from the party line). Also, the emphasis on the early "Rightly Guided ...


11

The basis for binding genies or jinn to household objects comes from medieval Islamic lore surrounding King Solomon of Israel. King Solomon used a magic ring to control djinn and protect him from them. The ring was set with a gem, probably a diamond, that had a living force of its own. With the ring, Solomon branded the necks of the djinn as his slaves. One ...


9

Omar occurs also in the bible Genesis 36:11 The sons of Eliphaz: Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam and Kenaz. Genesis 36:15: These were the chiefs among Esau's descendants: The sons of Eliphaz the firstborn of Esau: Chiefs Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, Chronicles 1:36 - same as Genesis 36:11 The sons of Eliphaz: Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam and Kenaz;


9

According to Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, at the beginning of the Christian era it was about 2 million, and in the next 2 pairs of centuries it geometrically rose to about 2 2/3 million, then nearly 4. It had climbed to a high of about five and a quarter million around the time of Muhammad, a high-water mark that was receded from a bit to about 4.5 ...


8

In this web posting by Charles Kent Smith, former president of the American Names Society, he claims the popularity of Omar as the name of Americans in the 19th century (as in Omar Bradley) is due to the popularity of poems like the Rubaiyat. They are named after the famed poet Omar Khayyam, much the same way the names Homer or Milton or Virgil came into ...


8

There is little reason to believe in the historicity of Abraham. He could be a real person, a character composite of many different people, a symbolic representation, or just entirely fictional. And accordingly, there wouldn't be any proof as such that anyone is descended from him. Even if archaeologists were to miraculously stumble upon his remains, it is ...


7

Firstly, there's no documentation or archaeological data available regarding the matter in question. Arabs of that time were mostly illiterate. There were extremely few individuals who could read and write. The culture of the period was almost entirely based on oral transmission. All of the reports about his beliefs before prophethood is based on Islamic ...


6

The simple answer is Pan-Arabism is not opposed to nationalism. It is opposed to national borders established by the West, but not the idea that they were one people and should have one united nation - the definition of nationalism. Communism is opposed to all division - class, national, ethnic, religious, the whole nine yards, and thus it would naturally be ...


6

Short Answer Asir revolts against Ottoman rule started in 1904 and continued during the 1916-18 Arab Revolt. The revolts were (initially, at least) primarily about gaining self-government, being rid of Ottoman taxation and corruption, as well as religious reform and territorial expansion at the expense of Yemen (which had been rebelling against the Ottomans ...


6

Hijaz Hijaz only a small part of Arabian Peninsula situated on Eastern bank of the Red sea. Arab groups understandably varied in their laws and customs throughout the region. Who was the Power in Hijaz In Hijaz, main power was the City state of Mecca. In fact, Meccans were the most prominent people among the Arabs due to being custodians of Kaaba. Meccan ...


6

There were sadly few writers of the Arab world who wrote in French until 1945. There were, however, lots of French writers who wrote about the Arab culture. My preferred one is René Guénon, also known as Shaykh `Abd al-Wahid Yahya. On the other side, the French culture influenced a lot of francophile writers. In Lebanon nowadays a lot of writers write in ...


6

First, there’s a Wikipedia article on Dan Gibson, and it says he is not a professional historian, and is criticized by them. The article also contains links to critical reviews you may want to read. For example, here’s a criticism from David King and Gibson’s response. However, it’s a traditional knowledge in Islam that before Mecca, Jerusalem was Qibla. ...


5

I have recently written an answer to the question you have linked. There I explain in detail how, alongside preexisting polytheistic religions, the Arabic Peninsula was largely monopolized by Judaism and Christianity by the 5th century. The structure of religious belief was then not different from that of other countries of the time. By the 6th century, ...


5

The first ever verse of Qu'ran is: Read (commencing) with the Name of Allah, Who has created (everything) The first word being "read", I guess whomever is making it easy for people to "read" Qu'ran is not doing something illegal.


5

The OP asked for historical accounts, unfortunately there is unlikely a complete and accurate first hand account Muhammad's life before his prophet-hood, including about his belief. According to Karen Armstrong, "We know practically nothing" about Muhammad's life before his receiving of revelation (and becoming a prophet), because he was not yet a major ...


5

I am afraid that this might only be a legend. From historical sources, we know that Zoos existed since ancient times as Menageries. First such instance would be in Heirakonpolis, Egypt which existed roughly around 3500 BC. (Which is several thousand years before establishment of Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus or Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad). In Levant, ...


4

The Mutawakkili kingdom was ruled by the imam of the Zaydi sect. The Houthis are Zaydis, but they are not from the family of the Imams; in this sense they are not “the same lot”, as you put it. It would not be surprising if they would attempt to restore the imamate, but as yet they do not seem to have suggested this.


3

Pan-Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation. wikipedia on Pan-Arabism In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin ...


3

Not sure if this is what you're wondering about, but from Will Durant's The Age of Faith (1950), page 161: In the belief of orthodox Moslems, the Kaaba was built or rebuilt ten times. The first was erected at the dawn of history by angels from heaven; the second by Adam; the third by his son Seth; the fourth by Abraham and his son Ishmael by Hagar......


3

Officially, the African leg of the Arab slave trade ended in 1923 when Ethiopia, one of the last countries where slavery was legal, definitely outlawed it after years of incremental legislation against the practice. This was done by the Ras Tafari (later known as Emperor Haile Selassie) in order to gain admittance to the League of Nations. Of course, the ...


2

Genealogy is family history based on records. There exists no such records that far back in time, so the question is not answerable. If we widen the question more, some sort of answer is possible however: People having been living in Arabia since the first humans migrated out of Africa, and as pretty much everywhere in the world, they have moved in and out ...


2

To add to the answer's already here: Muhammad would have probably been brought up in the pagan culture of his tribe. However, according to accounts, his job as a young man was to lead his uncle's merchant caravans. This would have meant travelling from Mecca to other big trading spots in the area, like Damascus for example. This would have exposed the ...


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