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27

These are very confusing, even for Latin ones and all are still full of uncertainties and speculation, apparently stemming from quite some influence asserted cross-culturally and confusion among the ancients which star/planet to name exactly how. What follows is quite likely, but not definitive. For it seems clear is that there are indeed pre-Islamic and ...


24

Because they believed their infant would have a better chance of surviving in the desert. The child mortality rate from disease and malnutrition in Arab settlements was horrendously high, and it was believed that sending the child into the healthier environment of the desert increased the child's chance of survival. - Gabriel, Richard A. Muhammad: ...


19

Muhammad was a member of the Quraish tribe, which controlled the Kaaba in Mecca. Prior to Islam, the Kaaba was an important pagan pilgrimage site. So that suggests at least what his cousins and extended family may have believed. Today the Kaaba is the official direction of Muslim prayer and all mosques and prayer locations will have a qibla to orient the ...


16

Translation of Qu'ran was always problematic question in Islamic theology. In Islamic world there is doctrine called I'jaz that holds that Qu'ran is miraculous, both in content and in form and that no human speech can match. According to I'jaz Muslims oppose to text from Qu'ran be reproduced in another language or speech. Also there are some words which have ...


13

To address Mark C Wallace's point, being ethnically Arabic and speaking the Arabic language are not the same thing. Arabic people existed long before the language we now call Arabic developed, albeit we tend not to refer to them as Arabic until the era of the spread of Islam and the Arabic language. This is not a detailed answer, and it relies on Wikipedia (...


12

The Wahhabi ideology started as a revivalist movement (return to the roots) and quickly became strongly conservative, emphasizing intolerance not just to other religions, but to other variants of Islam. This provides a tool for dealing with the dissenters (accuse them of deviations from the party line). Also, the emphasis on the early "Rightly Guided ...


11

The basis for binding genies or jinn to household objects comes from medieval Islamic lore surrounding King Solomon of Israel. King Solomon used a magic ring to control djinn and protect him from them. The ring was set with a gem, probably a diamond, that had a living force of its own. With the ring, Solomon branded the necks of the djinn as his slaves. One ...


10

According to Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, at the beginning of the Christian era it was about 2 million, and in the next 2 pairs of centuries it geometrically rose to about 2 2/3 million, then nearly 4. It had climbed to a high of about five and a quarter million around the time of Muhammad, a high-water mark that was receded from a bit to about 4.5 ...


8

There is little reason to believe in the historicity of Abraham. He could be a real person, a character composite of many different people, a symbolic representation, or just entirely fictional. And accordingly, there wouldn't be any proof as such that anyone is descended from him. Even if archaeologists were to miraculously stumble upon his remains, it is ...


7

Firstly, there's no documentation or archaeological data available regarding the matter in question. Arabs of that time were mostly illiterate. There were extremely few individuals who could read and write. The culture of the period was almost entirely based on oral transmission. All of the reports about his beliefs before prophethood is based on Islamic ...


6

Hijaz Hijaz only a small part of Arabian Peninsula situated on Eastern bank of the Red sea. Arab groups understandably varied in their laws and customs throughout the region. Who was the Power in Hijaz In Hijaz, main power was the City state of Mecca. In fact, Meccans were the most prominent people among the Arabs due to being custodians of Kaaba. Meccan ...


6

Short Answer Asir revolts against Ottoman rule started in 1904 and continued during the 1916-18 Arab Revolt. The revolts were (initially, at least) primarily about gaining self-government, being rid of Ottoman taxation and corruption, as well as religious reform and territorial expansion at the expense of Yemen (which had been rebelling against the Ottomans ...


6

The simple answer is Pan-Arabism is not opposed to nationalism. It is opposed to national borders established by the West, but not the idea that they were one people and should have one united nation - the definition of nationalism. Communism is opposed to all division - class, national, ethnic, religious, the whole nine yards, and thus it would naturally be ...


6

First, there’s a Wikipedia article on Dan Gibson, and it says he is not a professional historian, and is criticized by them. The article also contains links to critical reviews you may want to read. For example, here’s a criticism from David King and Gibson’s response. However, it’s a traditional knowledge in Islam that before Mecca, Jerusalem was Qibla. ...


5

I am afraid that this might only be a legend. From historical sources, we know that Zoos existed since ancient times as Menageries. First such instance would be in Heirakonpolis, Egypt which existed roughly around 3500 BC. (Which is several thousand years before establishment of Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus or Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad). In Levant, ...


5

The first ever verse of Qu'ran is: Read (commencing) with the Name of Allah, Who has created (everything) The first word being "read", I guess whomever is making it easy for people to "read" Qu'ran is not doing something illegal.


5

The OP asked for historical accounts, unfortunately there is unlikely a complete and accurate first hand account Muhammad's life before his prophet-hood, including about his belief. According to Karen Armstrong, "We know practically nothing" about Muhammad's life before his receiving of revelation (and becoming a prophet), because he was not yet a major ...


4

The Mutawakkili kingdom was ruled by the imam of the Zaydi sect. The Houthis are Zaydis, but they are not from the family of the Imams; in this sense they are not “the same lot”, as you put it. It would not be surprising if they would attempt to restore the imamate, but as yet they do not seem to have suggested this.


4

There was much more settled population than nomadic one. Also, there was more Arab population than Bedouin. First, the Arabian peninsula has only one population center, the Hijaz, which is barely suitable for agriculture, and somewhat suitable for heat-resistant animal grazing, such as camels, goats, and donkeys. This area runs along the Red Sea coast and ...


3

Greek was the language of the ruling elite and Aramaic (or "Syriac") was widespread among the peasantry. However, Arabic was also widely spoken throughout Greater Syria, since there were many Arabic tribes in the area as well as in Iraq. Arabic inscriptions dating many centuries before Islam are found throughout Syria-Palestine, especially the ...


3

Not sure if this is what you're wondering about, but from Will Durant's The Age of Faith (1950), page 161: In the belief of orthodox Moslems, the Kaaba was built or rebuilt ten times. The first was erected at the dawn of history by angels from heaven; the second by Adam; the third by his son Seth; the fourth by Abraham and his son Ishmael by Hagar......


3

Pan-Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation. wikipedia on Pan-Arabism In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin ...


3

Officially, the African leg of the Arab slave trade ended in 1923 when Ethiopia, one of the last countries where slavery was legal, definitely outlawed it after years of incremental legislation against the practice. This was done by the Ras Tafari (later known as Emperor Haile Selassie) in order to gain admittance to the League of Nations. Of course, the ...


2

To add to the answer's already here: Muhammad would have probably been brought up in the pagan culture of his tribe. However, according to accounts, his job as a young man was to lead his uncle's merchant caravans. This would have meant travelling from Mecca to other big trading spots in the area, like Damascus for example. This would have exposed the ...


2

Bedouin refers to people who make their living by means of stock raising, specifically on the marginal steppe lands not suited to sedentary agriculture. Their characteristic behavior is to take their family and belongings with them whenever they need to move their flocks to different pasture. This change of pasture is seasonal, and follows a pattern which ...


2

Genealogy is family history based on records. There exists no such records that far back in time, so the question is not answerable. If we widen the question more, some sort of answer is possible however: People having been living in Arabia since the first humans migrated out of Africa, and as pretty much everywhere in the world, they have moved in and out ...


2

During that time, Pan-Arabism was in fashion in the Arabic world. The lineage of these rulers going back to the clan of the prophet Mohamed of Islam was a plus. Arab countries were trying to unite in several competing failed projects. Where you come from was not as important as to what political dogma you had.


1

The Nabateans had an empire from the 4th century BC. They were an Arab nomadic tribe that settled in what is now Jordan. They expanded Northward through Syria. According to the maps I looked at they never made it further north and east then Damascus. In CE 363 there was an earthquake that cut off the Nabatean capital's, Petra, water supply. By 4th century ...


1

I will reword and answer the question as, "How well accepted were the Hashemite Kings in that the British imposed on Transjordan and Iraq after World War I?" Because the answers are rather different. The current king of "Jordan" is Abdullah II. He is the son of the late (and popular) King Hussein. Hussein was the grandson of Abdullah I, one of the two ...


1

Communism sets to replace religion as well as national identity with itself. Pan-Arabism sets to establish religion (Islam) and a single regional (if not necessarily national) identity, Arab culture. Thus the two are like fire and water, they can't possibly coexist in the same sphere of influence and not be at odds. Of course either can and will use ...


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