22

The premise is a bit off. Because actually, rocket artillery did become somewhat popular before the 20th century. Rockets were used to great effect in India, by the Kingdom of Mysore against forces of the British East India Company. The British in turn learnt from the Indians and developed their own rocket weaponry which went on to feature in the Napoleonic ...


18

It may be the German V-3, with a maximum range of 165 km. It was destroyed before it could be fired, although several experimental models were used in Luxembourg in 1944-1945. After the war, a U.S.-Canadian group revived the V-3, hoping to use it as a cheap weay to launch objects into space. According to this military history site: Using a testing ...


11

There is no objective criteria for comparing which piece of military hardware is "better". Less so when comparing military equipment between armies with vastly different doctrines and circumstances such as the US and Soviets. It's also a question of when? 1941? 1943? 1945? What might be useful is a review of US and Soviet mortars in WW2 and how they were ...


11

The book The Artillerist's Manual By John Gibbon, from 1860 gives us some insight into what was in use at the time. A clip from the appendix page 13 shows the components of an ammo box distributed with 12-pound guns and Howitzers. The last three items on the list are included to provide various means of firing the weapon; the friction primer, the slow match,...


9

To quote from Manual of Gunnery for Her Majesty's Fleet (1880): War Rockets This subject is at present under the consideration of a committee, the results obtained with Hale's rockets being considered most unsatisfactory. At present the 24-pr. rocket manufactured is Mark III., the later patterns having failed to meet the requirements of ...


8

What you have is a casing from a 77mm German field artillery piece, possibly like this: Some of the stamps: St: Strengthened case HL: Haniel Luege Düsseldorf (brass factory) 25: Inspection Mark not sure yet on the G(may indicate maker Geschossfabrik), and 36 may be lot number. Marz 1917, of course, would be the date. some sites to look: Large calibre ...


8

After some more research I stand by my earlier comment in general the gun ports had minimal protection, relying on small size and being in the shadow of the gun. There is a large amount of negative evidence for this, for example in his books Warrior to Dreadnought, The Grand Fleet and Nelson to Vanguard D. K. Brown does not mention protection to turret gun ...


7

If you don't care if they were actually used in combat, then the German V-3 cannons would certainly seem to be in with a shot (pardon the pun), with a projected range of 165km. If you're including land-based guns that fired straight up, then Project Harp had a 'range' of 180km.


7

I found a site with extensive information about the cannon. It includes beautiful scale drawings. While they do not include the height and width explicitly, they do have the total length of the cannon (2.5m) which can be used to extrapolate the scale of the images in pixels / cm. Pixels are used because they will not change with your screen or zoom. In the ...


7

In 2005 the Advanced Modular Gun Demonstrator test fired 85 miles or 137km and the shells could go 45km high. One article quotes the barrel pressure at 100,000 psi which is absurd. However, it is research equipment, not a practical weapon. Here is a presentation about it that looks so bad I'd think it were a joke if I didn't know better. That edges out ...


6

A railgun currently being developed by the US navy is planned to be integrated onto a ship by 2016 (although the reference is from 2010) with an estimated range of 160 km. It's unclear how far the current technology is able to reach given the probable secrecy of the project. The end goal is to eventually reach as far as 370 km.


6

I have the following figures to hand for weight of shot and charge, for a range of weapons that may have been used by the Prussian Artillery during the Napoleonic Wars. Shot (kg) Charge (kg) 12-pdr M1761 5.93 2.30 12-pdr M1768 5.93 1.60 12-pdr M1809 5.93 1.60 6-pdr M1762 3.0 1.40 6-pdr M1768 3....


5

This does depend a lot on what you consider to be accurate given the times and the circumstances. For example, the smoothbore artillery of the period were not particularly accurate themselves when compared to the modern rifled artillery we now have. In European service (and that means, essentially, British service) rockets were intended for area saturation. ...


5

Well, according to this article on DefenceNow, the Indian Army hasn't purchased any new field artillery since the 1970's. The miserable record of the Indian Army in procuring artillery guns over the last 25 years, when not a single weapon was purchased to replace aging World War-II vintage and 1970s vintage guns for its artillery regiments has come in for ...


5

Both sides did quite a lot of testing pre-war. That's why they had detailed tables that showed that X shells in Y hours would destroy anything. As it turned out, though, all this testing turned out to be irrelevant to the actual battlefield conditions of the Trenches. The problem is that in a war with your troops at risk, countries are far more willing to ...


5

Here are some French artillery of Napoleonic armies technical drawings and photos. The site is in Russian but the drawings are copied from some French originals. Inscriptions on drawings are in French. The Russians have a huge collection of them (captured in 1812-15) on display in Kremlin. http://wars175x.narod.ru/fr_art01.html http://wars175x.narod.ru/...


4

No, there was at least one pre-Vietnam precedent for FSBs. During the Chindit campaign in 1944 the British used fortified bases that were FSBs in all but name. These were established behind Japanese lines and had landing strips, artillery, anti-aircraft etc etc to facilitate attacks on Japanese rear areas.


4

The shell was manufactured in 1910 at the Wöllersdorf Works factory at Berndorf in Lower Austria (and nicknamed 'Krupp-Stadt' or 'Krupp city', which should give you some idea of what they're famous for!). Shells manufactured in 1910 could certainly have been fired during the First World War. The dimensions you've given look to be a pretty close match to ...


4

First, let's discuss some basic properties of guns: muzzle-loading launchers of solid shot, usually round, at sub-sonic muzzle speeds, with no internal mechanism for absorbing recoil. The absence of any recoil-absorbing mechanism dictates that launch elevations are restricted to just a few degrees, else the carriage is rapidly destroyed by shot recoil. The ...


4

To answer your title question, a 150 gun salute would have been very unusual, not just because of the great number but because salutes were generally done with an odd number of guns. The firing of gun salutes is a very old custom which appears to have originated in the early days of sail. Ships, when on goodwill visits to foreign ports, discharged all ...


4

The largest WW1 artillery pieces (especially the siege mortars) were very large indeed and even a dud shell from one would do serious damage if it landed on the engine deck of a modern (or indeed almost any) vehicle by sheer kinetic impact force alone. For example the Austrian "Schlanke Emma" fired a 385kg projectile (yes...). It'd probably crush through ...


3

Just adding a little detail, it is MÄRZ 1917 (A with umlaut), the two dots over the A are a part of the text and not an accident.


3

Rockets were developed not long after the invention of gunpowder. The Mysore Kingdom in Tamil Nadu (India) was the first to invent a formidable rocket, around the 1760's. Their use of iron tubes allowed for a substantial increase in velocity. Previously, rockets had been made of an organic material. Rockets tend to "squirrel" around when they are shot. To ...


3

Although, as you note, millions of shells were fired before the larger battles, the damage done by these shells was largely incidental and known to be so. Of much greater significance leading up to an assault was the suppression of enemy fire while friendly troops were in No-Man's Land, and a further shock-induced delay after the barrage lifted before ...


3

Yes, it is a uniquely American development created during the war in Viet Nam. (background info) A fire support base is sort of mobile artillery encampment. It is set up to provide temporary fire power in a local area where fighting (usually of an insurgency character) is occurring. It differs from normal warfare in that there is no front. The FSB is ...


2

Telling from your pictures of the Yamato and an Iowa-class, the holes were covered from the inside using steel, probably with less thickness than the turret armament. The combat environment of tanks and battleships is different, with battleships receiving more fire from higher elevation angles than tanks. This leaves mostly shrapnel from the deck as a threat ...


2

I am going to suggest the following simple point which is certainly mentioned above: A rocket cannot, without a guidance system, be as accurate as a cannon which can be aimed iteratively. If you fire a cannon and it misses, the place where the shot landed can be used to adjust the next shot. Rockets can't really be aimed this way because of inconsistencies ...


2

You are ignoring the very real differences between gun types and their ordnance. Gun Types: Direct fire: These weapons fire along line of sight at high speed and at very low elevations. They include muskets, rifles, cannons, and - in a later era - anti-tank weapons. Much of the damage is done by the velocity of the projectile, whether a solid shot such as ...


2

Wildes seems mistaken about the cannon's destination: it never went to Kamchatka. Stephan in The Kuril Islands cites Lensen in reporting that after their raids, Khvostov and Davydov headed to Okhotsk. Lensen also says that upon arrival Commandant Bukharin imprisoned the two and helped himself to the booty they brought from Sakhalin and Iturup. The cannon ...


2

The artillery company seems to have been formed between 1773 and 1780. According to Город над Авачинской бухтой by Витер, Magnus Carl von Böhm, chief of Kamchatka from 1773 to 1779, sent 32 soldiers with two officers to Petropavlovsk. These built an artillery battery at the entrance to the harbor. According to Clerke in Kamchatka, 1779: New Information ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible