49

Herodotus' Histories is the primary source for the second Persian invasion of Greece, which started with the famous1 Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC. Herodotus describes the battle in Book 7 (Polymnia) of the Histories, starting at paragraph 175: The Greeks, on their return to the Isthmus, took counsel together concerning the words of Alexander, and ...


40

Trotsky, as the leader of the Fourth International, was a direct competitor to Stalin as the Leader of the World Worker Movement. Stalin needed all the communists to be subservient to him, especially during the World War. Squabbles between Stalinists and Trotskyists inside the Spanish Republicans cost them dearly and demonstrated that Trotsky was still a ...


35

Despite the 'distraction' of World War II, Trotsky's assassination was widely reported and commented on, but the 'interest' did not last except among Trotskyists. The Stalin's Soviet Union responded to Trotsky's death by condemning him with a lengthy list of his supposed crimes, and official communist parties around the world toed the line. Elsewhere there ...


28

The answer to your question "is there any historical documentation which could lend support to this theory?" would be no. The entire story was based on forged documents planted at the UK National Archives. This was uncovered by an internal investigation carried out by the National archives, the results of which were made public back in 2006. As the ...


21

As the author of the CIA article, R. C. Jaggers, does not cite any sources, it is difficult to establish with certainty why he used the name 'Operation Salmon'. The most likely reason may be that Operation Salmon was an earlier designation for Operation Anthropoid (which raises the question as to why he preferred one over the other), but - amidst a fair ...


14

Nice question, but you've got the premise a bit wrong. Roman slaves could not be called by their master's name, not ever. But freedmen were, as a matter of law/custom. This applied to all cases, and wasn't the whim or fancy of a particular nobleman. Of course to differentiate, the slave would append his old, "barbarian" name as a cognomen. So if one Marcus ...


12

Curiously, after a bit of research I found this - a comment on the Amazon Kindle entry for the "book" The Assassination of Reinhard Heydrich Kindle Edition Make of it what you will, but possibly it is simply a CIA screw up, or at the very least by its author R.C.Jaggers. The commenter goes by the handle of Kallisto and writes: First of all, you can get ...


8

Eyes to the South offers slightly more information. An internal power struggle between the military and political faction was resolved when the military faction killed Ramdane. (See page 30) Another paper suggests, The leaders of the interior, under extremist Ramdane Abane, held a conference in the Soummam Valley in Algeria and did not include Ben ...


7

You'd be hard pressed to find a country with more assassinated leaders than ancient Rome. By at least one count, out of 84 emperors (not counting any eastern emperors from Leo I onwards): 32 (38%) were definitely murdered 11 (13%) may have been murdered 1 (1%) was executed by order of the Senate 28 (33%) died of natural causes 12 (14%) died in violent ways ...


7

According to the historian Jerry Kuehl, in his YouTube video on the subject, the event was neither filmed, nor photographed. The event that would have been filmed (the parade where the grenade was lobbed) didn't kill the Archduke. Only in the back alleys of Sarajevo did Gavrilo Princip seize the opportunity to kill the Archduke who was driving by in his car. ...


7

This is quite difficult to really fulfill in all the specifics laid out. Those kind of plot devices must be much more common than a quick net-search coming up empty might lead you to believe. A promising lead, according to conditionals set forth here, seems to be czar Alexander II and Alexander III. But apart from some newspaper reports about Alex3 escaping ...


6

The Nazi regime had planned to stage a big show trial for Thälmann, Elser and other enemies of their rule after a victorious end to the war. That is why they kept them alive. But by 1944 even the diehards knew that the war was lost. Hitler and Himmler gave orders to have Elser and others like Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Wilhelm Canaris killed. There was no time ...


6

The Serb conspirators did express regret at the deaths of what they considered "innocent" third parties, but basically felt that they did what they needed to do on behalf of their beloved Serbia. Gavrilo Princip, the main assassin, did express regret at his trial for killing the Archduchess" (the wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand), but asserted that he was a ...


5

The "CIA's secret report" by R. C. Jaggers reads like a "as told by" version of some primary document originating outside the CIA. The CIA of course did not exist in 1942, and its predecessor, the OSS, had nothing to do with the operation. So this report might be a version of an account appearing in the Czech press, or a memoir by a Czech official of some ...


5

The question seems lame for first sight, but makes sense in depth. The alliance systems weren't trivial at the start of World War 1 (or Great War). First I recommend to check out the timeline and look for the first dozens of lines of politics in gray. The outbreak of war wasn't one instance, it was a domino effect of triggers in alliances, warnings, ...


5

There were undoubtably numerous plots that made it to various stages. Where such a plot progresses to qualifying as an "attempt" is probably mostly up to the speaker. For example if it was the security services speaking, they'd have incentive to make themselves look good by being a bit generous as to what qualifies as an attempt. On the other hand, someone ...


5

He was exiled to Turkey by way of Khazakstan and not Siberia - and it wasn't until the Show Trials until Stalin felt he had consolidated enough power to order Trotsky's death.


5

I would say that the fundamental cause of World War I was the "Serbian" crisis, of which the Bosnian crisis and the assassination of the Archduke were merely "manifestations." Austria's response to the assassination of the Archduke was the so-called July Ultimatum. Briefly its terms included that Serbia fire a list of government officials, suppress books ...


4

After Congress of Berlin Bosnia and Herzegovina was occupied by Austro-Hungary, but still was formally part of Ottoman Empire. As Montenegro and Serbia wanted to incorporate that Ottoman province together, they were dissapointed with that decision and as only consolation they got international recognition and Niš was annexed to Serbia. Regardless to ...


4

Stalin had Trotsky assassinated for personal reasons. These can be seen if you read The Revolution Betrayed and Stalin by Trotsky, and Stalin: A biography by Robert Service which sums up Trotsky's demise in 1940. Trotsky attacked Stalin politically and personally through his books and while Lenin was alive. Trotsky was mocking Stalin about his physical ...


4

First of all, Trotsky had contested the succession to Lenin with Stalin. If Lenin had been in better health in his last days, Trotsky might have won because Lenin preferred him. So Trotsky was an existential threat to Stalin in the Soviet Union. The second thing was that Communism was supposed to be a worldwide movement, not just for the Soviet Union. So ...


4

I think you need to reverse your question: why not kill him? When the death sentence was passed on Bukharin, Stalin's long-neutralised and powerless former rival, Bukharin was allowed to write a short note to his sometime friend. Koba, why do you need me to die? Stalin did not answer these pathetic words. Unlike Trotsky, it would have been no trouble at ...


4

Stalin was concerned about Stalin and the fate of the Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist world revolution. The success of a Marxist-Leninist-Trotskyist movement would have endangered both his physical survival and his political legacy. Clarification: I see Stalin as a paranoid tyrant who did take power by force, and was afraid that others would do the same to him. ...


4

The known United States history in the Cold War with regards to assassinations targeted communist functionaries in disputed or contested regions. Not heads of state. When heads of states were targeted (Fidel Castro was a public example), they weren't successful. I know that on February 18, 1976, President Gerald Ford signed executive Order 11905 ...


4

I think that Wikipedia article has an adequate description of the Oslo accord. The main point was the mutual recognition between Israel and PLA, a promise of PLA to stop violence against Israel, and withdrawal of Israeli troops from the West Bank and Gaza. This also implied that Israeli settlements had to be removed. Some people on both sides were against ...


4

According to the SCLC web site, it took about a year for the organization to form, in a series of meetings, changing name several times: in Jan 1957 it was the "Southern Leadership Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration", in Feb 1957, the "Southern Leadership Conference", and, in August 1957, the "Southern Christian Leadership Conference", ...


3

Oslo was Israel recognising that Palestinians have some rights that the PLO were entitled to negotiate for them, agreeing for the Palestinian Authority to be set up and giving it some autonomy and control over parts of the west bank. The Palestinians recognised Israel and the 1967 borders while agreeing to negotiate a permanent border. Basically both sides ...


3

I'm not sure there's going to be a definitive source for an answer to this. From a (sociopathic autocrat's) political standpoint, I do think it was good timing. If he'd done it earlier when the guy was still in the news and had lots of followers, he would have created more of a martyr. Better to let things cool down for a while, perhaps spend a few years ...


3

the state security service is the one who foiled the assassinations attempts. I think they are four attempts (may be there are more attempts) 1) the most famous one was in 27 june 1995 In the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. Mustafa Hamza, a member of the Al Qaeda organization is the main suspect in the assassination attempt on Mubarak in Addis Ababa.But ...


3

Wow, yeah that's one heck of a question... And considering that you're talking about the foundational tragedy for a century of wars across multiple continents it's an important one to understand. The list of treaties above provides a good at the political structure that Franz Ferdinand's assassination "activated" but it is insanely hard for one work on the ...


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