69

The unified German state was only ~40 years old at the time, while the Austrian Empire controlled its lands for much longer than that, so why was it that the former was able to stick together so much better than the latter? The German Empire was a far more homogeneous state than Austria-Hungary. While the vast majority of Germans were... Germans, Austria-...


25

"Conrad" is not a given name. "Conrad" is his first surname. Franz is his given name, along with Xaver Josef. Full name: Franz Xaver Josef Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf [given names ] [title] [surname] [nobility] [placename] WP: Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf The field marshal, with full name Franz Xaver Josef (since 1910 baron, 1918/19 ...


20

Short answer: points 4-6 were unreasonable to the point of being unacceptable, because they gave Vienna so much power over Serbia that it amounted to a forfeiture of Serbian independence. This isn't unique to the time period or Serbia. Countries generally are not happy to subjugate themselves to a hated enemy. Whether they could afford to resist is another ...


18

This, as is history's wont, a question with quite a few events leading up to it. Pan-Slavism - the ethnic element As mentioned in the comments on the OP, Pan-Nationalism was all the rage at the time. In response to the Frankfurt Assembly and the Unification of Germany some Slavs felt that their rights were in danger as a result: https://en.wikipedia.org/...


14

Bavaria joined Prussia after the Franco-Prussian War. Prussia had emerged as the state that could defend "German" interests by leading the Germans in the defeat of France. Earlier, Prussia had beaten Austria in the Seven Weeks War of 1866. Austria had to settle accounts with Hungary after the 1866 war (after having quashed that country's bid for ...


14

(Presumably the question rules out the many co-belligerents of the Central Powers, for which Wikipedia has a detailed article.) The Kingdom of Romania is possibly the best example. In fact, the Romanians technically were allied to the Central Powers - they were a secret party to the Triple Alliance. At the start of the Great War, King Carol I wanted to ...


11

It is possible to kill a ridiculous number of birds in a day, if you do driven game shooting. The Wikipedia article specifically describes grouse shooting, but pheasant and partridge can be shot in the same way. This doesn't resemble what most people would call "hunting", it's an activity of wealthy Europeans, especially the British nobility. The classic ...


10

"Conrad" was his actual surname. "von Hötzendorf" was the nobilary particle his grandfather assumed when he became ennobled, but it was in fact derived from a maternal line (and thus was technically not his patronym, but just his title). That was likely a large part of the reason. Further complicating matters, he didn't have nobilary particle for the last 6 ...


10

Count Andrzej Potocki, the governor of Galicia, was assassinated on April 12, 1908 in Lemberg (Lviv) by a Ruthenian (i.e. Ukrainian) student. There were also several unsuccessful assassination attempts: on general Marijan Varešanin, the governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, on June 15, 1910 in Sarajevo by a Bosnian Serb, on count István Tisza, the speaker of ...


9

The emperors have often spoken many languages and Hungarian was an important one so one may find numerous Habsburg rulers who spoke Hungarian, too. For example, Maximillian II fluently spoke Spanish, French, Latin, Hungarian, and Italian. Maria Theresa spoke German, Italian, French, Spanish, Latin, Czech and she added Hungarian before she became the empress....


9

Nationalism was the defining organizing principle of the 20th Century. Under that Principle, having a country named "Germany" made up primarily of Germans makes perfect sense. Such a country should be stable. There's no real seam for parts of it to separate off into other cohesive units. On the other hand, an "empire" made up of Germans, Hungarians, ...


9

Germany could remain a relatively large block somewhat resembling its pre-war shape in terms of international borders. But that does not mean these borders and the block itself weren't challenged. Most of the rebellions in Germany at the end of the war were communist uprisings, often quickly put down by proto-Nazi troops, which were officially and originally ...


8

Austria-Hungary failed not only because of their multiculturalism and internal rivalities, but also because They gradually became an insignificant puppet state of Germany during the war Their military defeat was total They couldn't sign a separate peace when it was still possible Hunger, misery, desertions and major hunger protests The situation evolved a ...


8

Is an Empress Of Austria considered a "high-ranking official"? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Elisabeth_of_Austria#Assassination


8

'Naturally' Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey would be interested in anyone joining their cause. This is not about who ended up in 1918 being at war with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottomans. This is about all those considered by one side or the other as potentially siding with "them" from 1914–1918. And this list of attempts is surprisingly ...


7

According to the historian Jerry Kuehl, in his YouTube video on the subject, the event was neither filmed, nor photographed. The event that would have been filmed (the parade where the grenade was lobbed) didn't kill the Archduke. Only in the back alleys of Sarajevo did Gavrilo Princip seize the opportunity to kill the Archduke who was driving by in his car. ...


6

The Serbian Response to the Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum: French original English translation


6

We have to differentiate what "nationalists claimed" means exactly. As the territorial evolution of Poland is indeed so colourful and twisted, that "Poland" had never been a nation-state. Within Poland, or Polish nationalist circles, there were different schools of thought, just like in all other countries at the time. Some would have been content with ...


5

The German wikipedia page of the Archduke gives an even higher number. Specifically it says that he shot on a single day in June 1908 2763 black-headed gulls. They even cite a book as a source just for this claim, so it seems to be a reliable number. However, I wasn't able to find anything on how or where he accomplished that number. However, what John ...


5

Austria had annexed Bosnia-Hercegovina in 1908, and was looking to swallow Serbia next. It is in this context that the ultimatum be understood. The Austrian ultimatum not only demanded that Serbia allow her to prosecute the perpetrators of the assassination, but help Austria find and punish officials that may have helped them. It went much further by asking ...


5

Yes. Russian Poland, which included the former capital of Warsaw, was referred to as "Congress Poland." The term "Congress" refers to the Vienna Congress of 1815, which settled the boundaries of Europe for the post Napoleonic era. Congress Poland consisted mostly of what Napoleon had called the Duchy of Warsaw, that is the Polish heartland, and was handed ...


5

There is indeed a nice diploma thesis about this, that @WiJama found: Lucia Tatarková; "Vplyv Spišských petícií na národné hnutie Slovákov v 60. rokoch 19. storočia", Filozofická fakulta Univerzity sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave, 2007. (doc) / (The Impact of Spiš Petitions on the National Movement of Slovaks in the 60s of the 19th century) It has a German ...


4

The shell was manufactured in 1910 at the Wöllersdorf Works factory at Berndorf in Lower Austria (and nicknamed 'Krupp-Stadt' or 'Krupp city', which should give you some idea of what they're famous for!). Shells manufactured in 1910 could certainly have been fired during the First World War. The dimensions you've given look to be a pretty close match to ...


3

This 1770s map appears to show the border running along the ridge line, as in your 1869 example, suggesting that if there was any change it was relatively short-lived. Given this, I wonder if the 1859 line may simply be a cartographical error...


3

Russian Wiki gives the following breakdown: According to an Austrian military archive, upon mobilization in August 14, the Austrian forces consisted of 68.4 divisions. Of them 53.5 divisions (78.1%) headed to the Russian front, 15 divisions (21.9%) to the Serbian. In February 1915 there was 63.5 divisions, of which 51 (80.35) fought against Russians, 8.5 (...


3

The main reason the demands were unreasonable is that A-H wanted to force the issue with Serbia in order to end the troubles with their disaffected minorities in the neighboring districts. Getting an 'attaboy' support blank check from Germany helped stoke the fire. Serbia actually accepted virtually all the unreasonable demands, if not all of them. But ...


3

In the original "state people" is Staatsvolk or the national people of a nationalist state. Arendt's usage is somewhat in contrast to the definition of that Wikipedia link: The people of a state are usually understood to be the sum of citizens who have a legal relationship with their state and of persons who may in principle be on an equal footing with ...


2

There is an conspiracy theory, where Rudolf, the crown Prince of Austria was murdered. Official documents reports that he died in an act of suicide. More details about Rudolf here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf,_Crown_Prince_of_Austria#Affairs_and_suicide


2

The Treaty of Berlin (1878-9) allowed for the occupation and administration of Bosnia/HG only to the extent that it did not abrogate the personal rights of the sultan in the territory. The language included the statement (in French) reading: The fact of the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina does not prejudice [ne portant pas atteinte] the rights of ...


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