45

According to this MA thesis, the Byzantine armies had a number of overall advantages, but it does not follow that their commanders were especially skilled at one-to-one combat. Forcing individual Byzantine commanders to fight duels was an effective Arab strategy to exploit this weakness. (EDIT: As mentioned by @MarkC.Wallace in the comments, the Mubarizun ...


26

I think the other answer misses some crucial distinctions. Culture The culture of the Seljuks was non-Greco-Roman; the same applies to their language. A good summary of who they were comes from Gibbon (Chapter 57): Since the first conquests of the caliphs, the establishment of the Turks in Anatolia or Asia Minor was the most deplorable loss which the ...


5

No, there is no connection between the name "Rum" and Roman culture. The only connection with Rome is etymological, as described in the question itself. The same Wikipedia article on the Sultanate of Rum also states: The Seljuk dynasty of Rum, as successors to the Great Seljuqs, based their political, religious and cultural heritage on the Perso-Islamic ...


3

Here are some relevant excerpts from Helen Saradi's chapter "Towns and Cities" in the Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies, outlining the significant changes in the administration of Byzantine cities over time. The bold text is my own emphasis. This first part is referring here primarily to the early Byzantine period: Bishops as the spiritual leaders of ...


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