77

Most people at the time did not think the Roman Empire had fallen -- it's only from five hundred or a thousand years later that we can conclude that it did. Both points of view are reasonable. What happened around 476 is that the Western part of the Roman Empire was lost to central control. This was not the first time it had happened -- consider the Gallic ...


5

SHORT ANSWER: The Roman Empire had many different avatars or incarnations, and thus it fell on many different dates. LONG ANSWER: I do not count the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the French Empire, the German Empire, or the Austrian Empire as any sort of continuation of the Roman Empire. ...


5

This is not answerable with satisfactory comprehensiveness. The time before settlement and adoption of Christianity around 1000 is just too poorly documented. But apart from what Wikipedia presents in Old Hungarian script and some information in History of the Hungarian language, this is probably the secondary source coming most closely to what the question ...


4

Emperor Alexios was the first (out of four) members of the Komnenos Dynasty, who instituted the Komnenos reforms. Because it was (initially) a "faction" of the Byzantine Empire, rather than representatives of the Empire itself, they went back to using their own "native" troops of peasant soldiers, rather than mercenaries. The defeat at Manzikert had made ...


4

We can't prove a negative, but there's no reason to believe Justinian had any such plans. For one thing, it's unlikely Justinian would've felt the need for a co-star. The usual rationale given for dividing the empire is that Roman territories were too vast for a single person to rule effectively from one centre. And indeed, Justinian might have ran into the ...


4

Up to about the 11th century, the Byzantine Empire was seen as "king of the hill" that others wanted to knock down. That's because it straddled both Asia Minor and the Balkans in Europe, and incurred two sets of enemies. Earlier, the Byzantine Empire managed to repel Arab attacks on the Dalmatian coast of the former Yugoslavia, in the 8th century (at a time ...


3

Just to complement Geerkens' answer. Portugal had the Order of Christ. Originally the Portuguese Templars, they were incorporated in a new order when the Templars were suppressed. With the end of the reconquista and loss of relevance of the crusades, the Order progressively lost its warrior-monk nature. In the end of the c. XV, its lay members did not have ...


3

This is only a partial answer, mainly to guide further answers and to lift the comment from @Notaras: This building according to this is a electrical substation. The text is a bit unclear to me. Nicaea is misspelt as "Νεικαια" when it should be "Νικαια". The rest of the text appears to be taken from coin inscriptions. A standard long dedication reads ...


2

It seems to me we have two different descriptive terms for a piece of headgear. The first term, kamelaukion or kalemaukion from Wikipedia: In Byzantine times the term kamelaukion was a more general one for formal headgear, including items worn by the Imperial family. So this term describes a piece of headgear worn by a member of an imperial family. ...


2

the Fall of Constantinople was the most important event that ultimately led to the Age of Exploration, mainly the discovery of the New World by Columbus and of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama. Maybe ... Maybe not ... Let's see ... On one hand, the European Age of Discovery had already begun over three decades before the aforementioned event even ...


1

No. It did not survive. That is, it seems self-evident that at the source Justinian and his lawyers would have had a single book-shelf filled with the entire collection? But after that it gets complicated and sketchy for quite some time. From its creation until centuries later the number of manuscripts used, compiled, in circulation was indeed quite ...


1

First of all, the Nomos Georgikos is not a set of laws issued at one point in time. This collection resembles much the history of the bible in sofar as the laws have been assemled – and changed, in extent, in content – from 740–14th century. Beginning at Leo III the Isaurian (717–741). Only at that late time it somewhat solidified into a canon-like ...


1

The early centers of Christianity, that is Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, all sided with the Eastern (Greek Orthodox) Church. Rome did not recognize the position of these cities (except in a subordinate role) and the Orthodox Church did. Rome was the last of the five major cities to become Christian. It was, however, the most powerful, first because it ...


1

The first governor of Greece, Ioannes Kapodistrias, was a descendant if the Comnenus family from his mother, Diamanto Gonemi, a Cypriot family. There are several direct male descendants of the Comnenus family in Cyprus, being the descendants of Andronikos Comnenus and Theodora Comnenus. In several occasions they intermarried with the Lusignian family and so ...


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