80

Most people at the time did not think the Roman Empire had fallen -- it's only from five hundred or a thousand years later that we can conclude that it did. Both points of view are reasonable. What happened around 476 is that the Western part of the Roman Empire was lost to central control. This was not the first time it had happened -- consider the Gallic ...


47

The Early Middle Ages were not kind to Rome, and the long destructive war to recapture it didn't help things. By the time the dust settled, Rome had practically ceased to exist as a major city, with population estimates ranging from less than 50,000, to a tenth that* The rest of the peninsula didn't do much better. According to McEvedy and Jones, Italy was ...


45

According to this MA thesis, the Byzantine armies had a number of overall advantages, but it does not follow that their commanders were especially skilled at one-to-one combat. Forcing individual Byzantine commanders to fight duels was an effective Arab strategy to exploit this weakness. (EDIT: As mentioned by @MarkC.Wallace in the comments, the Mubarizun ...


43

No, they did not try to move their capital to Rome, but the Emperor Heraclius at one point--around 620 or so when the war against Persia was going very badly--did consider moving the capital even farther west to Carthage (not quite as strange as it sounds since his father had been exarch of Africa and it had been the power base from which he had seized the ...


38

I'd say that historically, the ideology in Russia meant it preferred to compare itself to Byzantium, probably similarly to the way you can hear the US is compared to Rome. This was, and still probably is, based on these facts: Russia has (and had even more) cultural ties to Greece and Byzantium: Christianity came to Russia from Greece, with majority of ...


27

I did not watch the YouTube video, but based on your description, it seems to be presenting a garbled account of history. Constantine XI did not will his titles way, but his brother Thomas Palaiologos claimed the imperial title after his death. Thomas briefly ruled the Byzantine remnants in the Peloponnese, but fled to Italy ahead of an Ottoman invasion in ...


26

I think the other answer misses some crucial distinctions. Culture The culture of the Seljuks was non-Greco-Roman; the same applies to their language. A good summary of who they were comes from Gibbon (Chapter 57): Since the first conquests of the caliphs, the establishment of the Turks in Anatolia or Asia Minor was the most deplorable loss which the ...


19

John VI Kantakouzenos John VI Kantakouzenos, who reigned from 31 March 1347 to 10 December 1354, is the emperor who comes closest to meeting your criteria. He was deposed by his co-emperor John V Palaiologos (for whom he had earlier acted as regent), adopted the name Joasaph Christodoulos and wrote a History: After he had been forced to retire, Emperor ...


19

According to the Wikipedia article on Constantine XI Palaiologos, no. Despite the increase in emperors with the same name during the Middle Ages, such as the several Michaels and Constantines, the practice was never introduced. Instead, the Byzantines used nicknames and patronymics to distinguish rulers of the same name. Thus, the numbering of Byzantine ...


11

Question: Why is late Russian Empire associated with Byzantium while having little in common with it? To sum up, it seems to me that there is a massive difference between Byzantium and the late Russian empire in the way people viewed the relations between themselves and the ruler. Comparing pre-revolutionary Russia to a ...


11

I'm not sure why @Spencer didn't post this as an answer, but I believe he is correct in his comment from Apr in 2018 (as is the more recent (June 2018) limited response from @Rob Crawford): There is another snippet from the Madrid Skylitzes showing this same thing on land, on top of a hill, while the boat rows away, depicing Thomas the Slav fleeing to ...


10

The reason is because of some superficial similarities, mainly of the "headline" variety. After the fall of Rome, the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire claimed the mantle of the new Rome. In the 14th century, Bulgarian monks fleeing the Ottomans (and anticipating the fall of Constantinople) urged the Russians to declare themselves the Third Rome. After the ...


8

I checked the book: The word "Byzantine" is mentioned only on 9 pages (out of nearly a thousand). Mostly, it is mentioned in relation to personalities of Nicholas-II and his wife. (In one case, it is mentioned in relation to Stalin's idea of embalming Lenin's corpse.) Examples of these are: "Nicholas's model of the autocracy was almost entirely ...


6

SHORT ANSWER: The Roman Empire had many different avatars or incarnations, and thus it fell on many different dates. LONG ANSWER: I do not count the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the French Empire, the German Empire, or the Austrian Empire as any sort of continuation of the Roman Empire. ...


6

Some of this history is still controversial (namely, the actual location of Sarkel). Following is what I have extracted from the book S. Pletneva, "Essays on Khazar archeology," ("Очерки хазарской археологии") Jerusalem, 1999, that was written mostly on the basis of archeological excavations, namely, Artamonov's expedition (Artamonov was Pletneva's PhD ...


6

I think the ancients did produce purple dye via admixture. Various challenges with that approach (and purple dyes in general) likely affected its historical ubiquity or our perception of that ubiquity. Regarding your specific sub-questions: Though challenging, ancient humans have mixed dye components to create purple dye, however, more complex factors ...


6

As far as I know, during the Middle Ages it was rare for a lowly king to use an official number. For all that I know, there might have been kingdoms where no king ever officially used a number before the end of the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages the official use of regnal numbers was mostly limited to the Emperor and the Pope. And I don't know when or ...


5

No, there is no connection between the name "Rum" and Roman culture. The only connection with Rome is etymological, as described in the question itself. The same Wikipedia article on the Sultanate of Rum also states: The Seljuk dynasty of Rum, as successors to the Great Seljuqs, based their political, religious and cultural heritage on the Perso-Islamic ...


5

What makes you think that the eastern Roman or "Byzantine" army was helpless against cavalry? What makes you think that heavy cavalry and heavy infantry would be useless against enemy cavalry forces? What makes you think that the "Byzantine" army didn't also have light cavalry and light infantry, etc., etc.? Here is a link to an article about "Byzantine" ...


4

This question has been here for a while, and the Wikipedia entry has slightly changed in its wording though not the context. In both cases I would suggest that the emphasis on taxation lies on the Persians and Romans and not on any nomadic tribesmen. This is further emphasised by the primary source of taxation being the land tax (and, therefore, the settled ...


3

Here are some relevant excerpts from Helen Saradi's chapter "Towns and Cities" in the Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies, outlining the significant changes in the administration of Byzantine cities over time. The bold text is my own emphasis. This first part is referring here primarily to the early Byzantine period: Bishops as the spiritual leaders of ...


3

Just a partial answer here to one of the questions posed in the body (not in the title): "Is it safe to assume that such marriages of marrying off a Christian daughter resulted in their forced conversion to Islam, and that they were not allowed to remain Christian?" It was not always the case that the wife would convert to Islam, at least when the ...


3

Russian autocrats have, to a greater or lesser extent, considered themselves heirs to Byzantium since the 15th century Inasmuch as Russian culture has traditionally been centered around the Orthodox faith, the Greek tradition was always the strongest foreign influence on it. The majority of Russians even today have first names of Greek origin (Aleksandr, ...


3

the Fall of Constantinople was the most important event that ultimately led to the Age of Exploration, mainly the discovery of the New World by Columbus and of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama. Maybe ... Maybe not ... Let's see ... On one hand, the European Age of Discovery had already begun over three decades before the aforementioned event even ...


2

Short answer: Cross? What cross? Was there really a noteworthy one? That seems quite doubtful. More detailed answer: A first thought is of course that the depictions shown so far are not entirely realistic. Icons have a halo, real people do not. Churches are marked in pictures with a cross, they do seldom have one in reality, very seldom if it should be ...


1

Sviatoslav I destroyed Sarkel. He built a settlement there called Bela Vezha, "white tower". This lasted until the Cumans, who then used it as a winter campground.


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