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Some of this history is still controversial (namely, the actual location of Sarkel). Following is what I have extracted from the book S. Pletneva, "Essays on Khazar archeology," ("Очерки хазарской археологии") Jerusalem, 1999, that was written mostly on the basis of archeological excavations, namely, Artamonov's expedition (Artamonov was Pletneva's PhD ...


Sviatoslav I destroyed Sarkel. He built a settlement there called Bela Vezha, "white tower". This lasted until the Cumans, who then used it as a winter campground.

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