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19

The Rubicon river marked the boundary between the province of Cisalpine Gaul and Italy proper. Caesar, as a proconsul, held imperium (the right to command) within the provinces, but only a consul or praetor could hold imperium inside Italy. Generals were expected to lay down their command and re-enter Italy as private citizens; not doing so would be seen as ...


16

No. The Persian name is a derivation or descendant of the legendary Kay Khosrow. Looking at the list of name bearers Khosrow reveals that the name is in much longer use than 532 CE. Variants of the name کیخسرو‎ Husrav, Xusro, Khusro, Khosrau, Khusrau, Chusrau, Khosro, Khosru, Khosrow or Khusraw. In Greek it is sometimes rendered C(h)osroes or Osroes. ...


13

Although Julius Caesar did not at first consider Sextus Pompey to be a significant threat, he eventually sent forces against him when his old rival's youngest son began to gather strength. Sextus Pompeius, unlike his elder brother Gnaeus Pompeius, escaped after the Battle of Munda in 45 BC and continued to elude Caesar's forces. According to Appian, ...


9

No new evidence on Caesar himself has emerged and it is unlikely that any direct evidence will emerge. However, historians have been writing a lot since Mommsen's time, with contributions about this particular question in 1914 and in 1917 (Mommsen died in 1903). The upshot is that Mommsen was probably wrong. Note that Mommsen already had plenty of evidence ...


9

Although Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon, which marked the border of his province, was significant in that it marked the start of full on hostilities, it was by no means certain that he would be victorious. According to both Plutarch and Suetonius, Caesar had doubts in his mind as he reached the river, the latter claiming that these doubts were soothed only ...


8

It depends precisely what is meant by "co-regency". I will try to outline the widely accepted facts. According to historian Beth Severy, Augustus announced his intention in 4 CE that Tiberius should inherent his title as emperor. Augustus adopted Tiberius as a son and give him a triumph and "a special grant of imperium". Over the following decade: For ...


8

When Caesar led his army across the Rubicon River, Pompey fled to Greece with his army and most of the Senate. In the beginning, the advantage seemed to lie with Pompey. Not only did he command a large army, but he also controlled much of the East as well as Spain. Caesar, however, handled the situation masterfully. Finally in 48 B.C., Caesar crushed Pompey'...


7

Yes. It was Decius. But I cannot say if it was because Christians were being too aggressive. It could have been an attempt to gain public acceptance. All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community 'for the safety of the empire' by a certain day (the date would vary from place to place and the ...


7

Pharsalus was the turning point. Caesar was out numbered and could easily have lost but was the better general on the day. Remember that Pompey was considered the better general between the two at the time. After that, it was a matter of time before he finished the civil war. Pompey was later assassinated in Egypt and thus never had a chance to recover ...


6

As others have said, the names and titles of Caesar/Kaiser and of Khusrau/Khosrow/Chosroes/Kisra are unrelated. But there is a famous historical example of someone claiming to be related to both Caesar and Khosrow. The Caliph Yazid III (701-744) recited a poem about his exalted ancestry: I am the son of Chosroes, my ancestor was Marwan, Caesar was my ...


6

Most likely Eusebius was dating Augustus' reign from the time he was named Consul and recognized as the son of Julius, in 44 BC, or from the power-sharing agreement made with Marc Antony in 43 BC. The later date you give corresponds to his assuming the title "Augustus" and the formal leadership of the Senate. This may technically be how the reign of "...


6

I subscribe to the simpler explanation: Sextus Pompey was overshadowed by his elder brother Gnaues Pompeius (Pompey the Younger) and, of course, their father - Pompey (Pompey the Great). Until their passing, the decisions and actions taken by this family were always attributed to Sextus' elder brother and father. So, I think your "possible answers" really ...


6

I think you're recalling a passage from Diodorus Siculus' The Library of History, Book V: 31 1 The Gauls are terrifying in aspect and their voices are deep and altogether harsh; when they meet together they converse with few words and in riddles, hinting darkly at things for the most part and using one word when they mean another; and they like to talk in ...


5

I, like many historians, consider Caesar's histories to be accurate and objective. In fact, Caesar is, like Thucydides, considered to be an author who set a new standard for historical accuracy for writers coming after him. The reasons I consider his accounts to be accurate: There are no cases I know of where some fact in his histories has been shown to be ...


5

Why Caesar crossed the Rubicon is a question none other than Caesar himself answered: 'They wanted it so. I, Gaius Caesar, in spite of such great deeds would have been condemned, had I not sought help from my army (hoc uoluerunt. tantis rebus gestis C. Caesar condemnatus essem nisi ab exercitu auxilium petissem).' (Suet. Dl 30.4; Plut. Caes. 46.1. ) ...


5

Question: Why didn't Caesar move against Sextus Pompey immediately after Munda? Caesar did pursue Sextus. After the Battle of Munda(17 March 45 B.C) both of Pompey's son's Gnaeus Pompeius (oldest son) and Sextus Pompey(youngest son) ran for their lives. Pompeian armies had been destroyed, their supporters had been exhausted, and Caesar was the clear ...


4

Caesar did not depart "for Parthia". Although that was later embellished to be on his table as plans, it is not what he did. He returned to Rome to hold an "unpopular triumph", after he defeated his main opponents in name (Labienus, Gnaeus) and he did seek out Pompeius's sons, 'pacifying the land', destroying the places where he believed them to hide. This ...


3

Here is a time line of events of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey (continued by his party after his death) 50 - Caesar enters Italy proper by crossing the Rubicon with his army 49 - Pompey evacuates Italy and arrives in Greece On route to Spain, Caesar initiates a siege of Massilia, he leaves for Spain, and his subordinates successfully end the ...


3

Question: What specifically did Caesar think he would be charged with. Was it for killing the supposedly allied Germans, the one which Cato put a motion forward to turn him over to the Germans? Was it mismanagement of his province? Or was it just simply that he felt his rivals would trump up some charges on him? Short Answer: You mentioned Plutarch's ...


3

The real problem of that time in Rome was the concentration of power in one person, and the risk of having a absolut monarch. While Rome was a small nation, they prevented this problem having two consuls per year (each consul with an army), and since the distances were small, Senate did not lose control over them. But while the country grows more and more, ...


2

Child of God, you asked this same question on the Biblical Hermeneutics site just a few days ago. The evidence I gave there concerning what year was considered the beginning of Tiberius' reign is solid. For the sake of those not on that site, here is the evidence I offered: Augustus died in AD14. Thus Tiberius began his reign as sole Emperor. The 15th year,...


2

The point was not the disbandment of his army but that he could not be charged with crimes as long as he was consul. So his enemys wanted to bring the election forward in order to get a chance to drive him off the office. I don't know all the specifics but I read that the main point was that he enacted laws without the proper ratification of the Roman ...


1

This question is fairly generic and broad as logistics of a people or entity are researchable easily through any public domain or internet search. Look up any history of the Gauls or a European history textbook and you will find details on this. I don't have my sources handy but from what I can recollect from my knowledge of the Republic.. As far as we ...


1

Question: Why was Caesar at the Rubicon? Short Answer: The perception was Caesar was at the Rubicon, with a single legion (1/10th of his available forces) to seek terms in his confrontation with his political rivals who controlled the Senate. That Caesar subsequently crossed the Rubicon, invading Rome reluctantly only after his moderate requirements for ...


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