32

Congratulations on your first question, justCal! The cropped version of the Mission Dolores photograph was published in George Robinson Fardon's famous 1856 album. I have the cheap Dover edition. As you found, a larger version also appears in the works of Carleton Watkins. Both men have been credited with this image, but both reprinted the work of another, ...


26

The government has some good resources for research like this site for the Yokut tribe. This map from Berkeley not only outlines each culture but puts them into a super class based on language.


15

Yes: The presidio of Monterey was destroyed by the Argentine-sponsored privateer Hippolyte Bouchard in 1818. The presidio of San Francisco capitulated to the pro-Spanish forces of Joaquin Solís in 1829. The presidio and town of Monterey were occupied by Jones of the USA in 1842.


14

First, to be clear, lead is an additive and doesn't occur naturally in gasoline. It was in 1921 that General Motors discovered that adding lead (in the form of lead tetraethyl or TEL) to gasoline is a cheap way to increase octane and prevent engine knocking. So it would have been possible before that. Soon after, in 1925 and 1926, there was a temporary ban ...


12

Yes, there were. The Russian-American Company sent a party of prospectors comprised of four Russians and six Tlingit indians led by a Lt P.P. Doroshin: Doroshin and 10 RAC employees sailed to California aboard the Prince Menshikov, which arrived in the overnight boom town of San Francisco on December 21, 1848. In January, 1849, Doroshin set out with ...


10

Here's an interesting article on the topic, from the Santa Barbara Independent newspaper. It's titled, "What Did the Early Spanish Settlers Eat?" and should answer your questions: The primary crop was wheat, in addition to significant amounts of corn, beans, barley, and peas. As the mission’s water system developed, more sophisticated irrigation ...


10

California could not be broken up at the time as it only contained about 90,000 residents and the minimum resident requirement to become a state was at the time 60,000. so to split it up into 3 states you would have to wait till you have 180,000 residents with 60,000 in distinct areas to facilitate a split.


10

The Catacombs of Paris contain the remains of more than 6 million people, and much like the San Francisco situation the catacombs were established to alleviate overflowing cemeteries throughout Paris. These catacombs were built using defunct mines and quarries spread out underneath Paris, and millions of remains were moved there from cemeteries across the ...


9

According to the The San Francisco call., October 10, 1910, pg 3, the park is named after Núñez de Balboa. It states that at the park's dedication... House and Park Praised ...Prof. George Barron, curator of Golden Gate Park museum made a vigorus plea for playgrounds for the mission district. He touched on the great work being done by the improvement ...


8

So, in researching the link from sbi, I think he's got one piece of the puzzle, but there seem to be a few more. Juan de Fuca (the same guy from whom the straits around Vancouver Island / the Seattle area are named), had claimed to have found a Northwest Passage Sailors from the south had also found the Gulf of Baja California, and frankly its big - so big ...


8

It was horribly too far away. One thing is stablishing some minor settlements and trade activities, and a very different one is conducting a military expedition. Siberia was not developed to support such an effort locally, and most of the southern coastline of what is now the Russian Far East was part of China (which ceded it to Russia as part of the ...


8

This study, Japanese Wrecks stranded and picked up adrift in the North Pacific Ocean by Charles Wolcott Brooks, presented before the California Academy of Sciences in 1875, published in 1876, lists on page 10 (among dozens of other entries covering many years) what may have been the relevant encounter in 1815 (emphasis mine): Captain Alexander Adams, ...


7

According to pg 317 of the Book California Through Russian Eyes, by James R Gibson, ...while hunting sea otters from the Ilmena, he either jumped ship or was captured by a Spanish patrol. The Ilmena is listed as 'purchased from the Americans' on the Russia-America Company wiki page. So there's your ship name, and yes he was employed in the fur trade.


7

The Spanish DID come to the New World to find Gold, and other things, but while I always thought they came across it much earlier than they did it looks like that was not so. At least in the province of California: When James Wilson Marshall found gold in the tailrace of Sutter’s mill on January 24, 1848, he was not the first to come across this much ...


7

I have managed to locate online copies of the San Francisco Journal of George Burrowes, 1858-1875 (Edited by Charles A. Anderson, and with a biographical sketch by Clifford M. Drury), which might now provide a more-or-less definitive answer to your question. This was published in three parts in the Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society and is ...


7

No, that doesn't seem a likely explanation, not after 750 years of reconquista. The answer is for now: we don't know. From Wikipedia: Spanish explorers in the 16th century, when they first discovered the Baja California peninsula west of the Sea of Cortez, at first thought the peninsula to be a large island. The name "California" was applied to the ...


6

To make the answer short not very well. Their treatment under the ranchos was pretty much the same as their treatment under the Missions. The articles mentioned they were paid in goods and alcohol, though some may have been paid in cash or script, I guess it would depend on the Ranchero. "A California rancho might employ as few as twenty or as many as ...


6

I found independent confirmation of this tradition in the 1848 diary of James C. Ward, which was serialized in The Argonaut in 1878. He described "the riding-dress usually worn here" as including "leather bottas bound around the calves, with knife tucked into the top of the right one". Zavalishin and Ward were from different countries and wrote in different ...


6

Presumably this had to do with the Save the Bay movement that started in the early sixties. This movement was a backlash against the filling that had happened up unto that point: While Reber’s plan never broke ground, many others did and by 1961, the Bay was a third smaller than it was a little more than a century before. The particular trigger was a ...


6

The book Historic Spots in California: Fifth Edition claims the term moro was used to indicate anything black, and that tradition says that a lame black horse gave the name to this particular tract of land The horse story is repeated in the Encyclopedia of California entry on Castroville, which also includes a possible reference to black soil of the ...


5

According to Martha Ortega Soto, Alta California, una frontera olvidada del noroeste de México 1769-1846, in 1773 the commander earned 4000 pesos per year, the captain 3000, a sergeant 450, a corporal 400, and a soldier 300, but payment was made mostly in goods -including horses, guns, equipment, food, contribution for reparations and pensions/insurances-. I ...


5

According to the 1815 diary of Antipatr Baranov, as translated by Irina V. Wender and appearing in "So Far From Home", edited by Glenn J. Farris (Heyday, 2012): Along with Mr. Elliot were captured the following people: Fedor Sokolov, Dmitrii Shushkov, Petr Drushinin, American from Boston Liza [ed: Elijah?] Coal, Osip Volkov and Afansii Klimovskij. All ...


5

Yes. In California Through Russian Eyes, 1806–1848, on page 158, there is a discussion of a celebration being held in honor of the Tsar's birthday. Entertainment in the form of dancing and singing caused mention of two young girls 'sweet voices'. One of the girls who 'distinguished herself' is listed as Dona Josefa de Sola. The footnote credits her as 'The ...


5

I can only find figures excluding Indians. According to Weber's The Mexican Frontier, California had 7,300 in 1845, and New Mexico had 65,000 in 1846. Texas in 1846, according to the Texas State Historical Association, had 125,000 people.


5

In an article on the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, PBS offers the following estimate: At the time of the treaty, approximately 80,000 Mexicans lived in the ceded territory, which comprised only about 4 percent of Mexico’s population. PBS


5

The earliest I find,according to Digest of the laws of California: containing all laws of a general character which will be in force on the first day of January, 1858 ... prepared under an act of the Legislature of California of the session of 1857 by William H. R. Wood published S. D. Valentine and son, 1857 Act of March 25 1851 concerning Divorces Art ...


5

TL;DR: Russia was not interested. Fort Ross did only sea otter hunting; all attempts to grow food on any reasonable scale failed. California in general was a desert with half-wild grazing and no arable land, except maybe some of New Helvetia (which started wheat production only as late as 1840, and even that was barely sustainable). Of course lumber was ...


5

Russia had no Pacific fleet until after the Americans came to California and Oregon. It only obtained the area around Vladivostok in 1860, the future base of the Pacific fleet. In fact, Russia had no navy until the time of Peter the Great (1690s). Even then, it was far behind the fleets of Britain and France in the 18th century. As late as 1905, Russia had ...


5

First the easy stuff, from the article you linked, it was indeed first reported by a member of Captain Cook's expedition to Tahiti (not Hawaii): The art of surfing, known as enalu in the Hawaiian language, was first discovered by Joseph Banks on the HMS Endeavour during the first voyage of James Cook, during the ship's stay in Tahiti. Surfing was a ...


5

The short answer is 'Yes'. The initiative was taken by James K. Polk who sent an envoy, John Slidell, in November 1845 following Mexico's severing of diplomatic relations with the US. Referring to Texas, Polk had instructed Slidell to insist that the Mexicans recognize annexation as a fait accompli. Most surprisingly, Slidell had also been told to ...


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