19

If your textbook indeed says this, it is evidently biased. First of all, these things (the Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, and European empires) belong to very different historical periods, and thus cannot be compared. The "world standards" of what is considered "benevolent" and "tolerant" are changing with time. For example, in antiquity and during most of ...


15

The critical factor all these answers leave out: The Black Death. The Plague of Justinian swept through the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires a few generations before Islam. On the Byzantine side, the reduction in manpower available for warfare was near 90%. The damage to the economies of both empires made it unlikely they'd rebuild the population losses ...


14

Long lasting wars between Sassanians and Byzantine empire had made cripple armed forces of both of them and made their borders vulnerable. Lakhmids were acting as a buffer state between nomad Arabs and Persia. But Khosrow II made them into neutral force practically. the practice made Iran's southern border more vulnerable. Kavadh II massacred a lot of ...


13

Usually islamic banks give loans for a share in the income of the business project as opposed to fixed percent of the loan sum (see mudarabah) The consumer loans may utilize another scheme: the bank buys, for example, a car and it becomes the bank's property, then you use this car and slowly re-buy it from the bank for greater money. Once you finished, the ...


12

The word "caliph" comes from the Arabic "khalifa", which means "successor [of the Prophet]". The caliph claims a religion-based legitimacy, instead of popular support as in republics. The philosophy is totally different. A caliphate's objective is to have a government based on the Sharia, while a republic seeks to have a government based on popular will. ...


10

Peter C. Scales:The Fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba: Berbers and Andalusis in Conflict (Medieval Iberian Peninsula, Vol 9), the source linked in the answer by @Mr.lock / @Kobunite actually hints at a plausible answer to OP's question, namely that Abd al-Rahman was recognized when he arrived in al-Andalus because members of the Umayyad family had already ...


10

One thing worth consideration is the very nature of the title Caliph. In practical terms, throughout history many have claimed the title, but few were widely believed to be a rightful Caliph. This is not at all dissimilar to the Western Schism, when in the late 1300s there were three Catholic Popes. This has happened within Sunni Islam too. In the early ...


9

Byzantium and Persia were both greatly weakened by titanic wars they had fought with each other during the reign of Heraclius - at one point Byzantium was surrounded, and at another Heraclius was taking Persia's capital city. But aside from that, there was a structural weakness in the Eastern provinces near where Islam was being born - the Monophysite ...


7

According to Shia Muslims the only current legitimate Caliph selected by Allah is Imam Mahdi (a.s.) but he is now at occultation. So because Muslims recognize him as Caliph so no Shia Muslims claim this title. Shia Muslims believe according to different verses of Quran only Allah has the right to select his own Caliph on earth. Because Caliph means deputy ...


5

I think there are two main reasons: 1. Inertia Don't underestimate inertia, especially when you're talking about establishing a position with such a worldwide implication as the Caliph. For example, it's relatively a simple matter for a 19th-century Ottoman Sultan to say that he is the Caliph, given that for the previous hundreds of years all Ottoman ...


4

@ChintaLaura's explanation is excellent - well researched and reasoned analysis of the question you asked. Your question however hints at a deeper interest in the function of government and various alternative mechanisms to fulfill that function. I think Fukayama's Origins of Political Order might provide a useful analytical framework. Loosely summarizing ...


4

As Shia's POV was already discussed in previous answer, let's think of Sunnis. First of all, many Sunni states are republics (let's not go into the dispute about how really democratic they are). And it would be strange if some elected president would have proclaimed himself as Caliph, wouldn't it? Next, Caliph, by definition, is the leader of all Muslim ...


4

When the law prohibits interest altogether, it does not prevent it. Many people must borrow, and nobody will lend without such a consideration for the use of their money as is suitable, not only to what can be made by the use of it, but to the difficulty and danger of evading the law. The high rate of interest among all Mahometan nations is ...


3

Abdul Mejid II was the last caliph. And on the contrary , to the OP's assumption, he was deposed because he was too much under influence of parties holding his strings. This New York Times article from 1924 puts light. 《Sorry, i couldn't shake $4 for the whole article》 Another closer is excerpt from a New York Times article, April 13 ,1920. Caliph was ...


2

As far as I can tell, this traces back to oral tradition and so you are unlikely to find any precise record of when the drought or judgment occurred. But the judgment is specifically attributed to Umar, and he was caliph from August 634 CE to November 644 CE.


2

According to Wikipedia the Mamluk Sultanate ruled part or all of the territory of the following countries: > Today part of [hide] Egypt Israel Jordan Lebanon Libya State of Palestine Palestine Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria Turkey Thus the maximum area of the Mamluk sultanate must be smaller than the total area of those countries. Egypt: 1,010,407....


2

The accepted story is that he did (according to Al-Tabari, for example). Each time a Caliph was chosen, all top early Muslim commanders gathered during the crowning ceremony and swore allegiance to the new leader. That said, there are a number of dissenting scholars who consider that the official Muslim accounts are unreliable to the point that the first ...


1

Because it is more trouble than it is worth. The Fall of Ottoman Empire coincides with Colonial domination of many Muslim lands in Asia and North Africa. When the Colonial powers left, the nations evolved more along the lines of nation states rather than a theocratic Empire. All the nations have different languages, different cultures, different laws ...


1

I think that since the beginning of Arab nationalization there has been no push to really have a pan-Arab leadership which is a requirement of having a Caliph. Different attempts by Nasser, Bin Laden and DaISH are routinely discredited and degraded by the West which leads to legitimacy crises for these recent attempts to have a Caliph. Further, the rules ...


1

I have two theories as to why the caliphate was not reclaimed (as of yet). Before stating those i would like to point out that the abolishing of the caliphate by Ataturk has nothing to do with why it is still not reinstated. With that said: The word caliph actually means successor of Mohammad. This would pose multiple problems to an ideology already plagued ...


1

Abd al-Rahman I's mother was a Moor from a tribe called Nafra (click the link for pg 111). That helped him to be recognized first in Morocco and then in Islamic Spain as well.


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