73

Why? Because there was no point. First, according to more modern astronomical measurements, the current length of the year is closer to about 365.2422 days, so they would've been relatively less accurate had they used a more precise value of 365.2425463 days per year. Which leads to a very important point about math: you need to be very mindful about how ...


47

In principle, they were not supposed to leave their order because they took a vow for life. In practice, some did leave, and some were subsequently readmitted. However, the time period covered here is very long, and different orders - and individuals within orders - were probably sometimes more, sometimes less inclined to allow people to leave. Consequently, ...


46

It would appear to be true, according to this Wikipedia entry. ... passengers and crew headed to the stern, where Father Thomas Byles was hearing confessions and giving absolutions, Edited with suggestion from @sempaiscuba This BBC report adds that Father Byles refused to leave the ship, and stayed to comfort passengers, leading recently to calls for ...


46

It seems likely this is a historical myth. According to WikiPedia's list of Papal Bulls*, Urban II did issue a bull that year, but it had to do with who was allowed to excommunicate the ruler of the Kingdom of Aragon. I can't find a link to the text online either, so it seems possible other topics were dealt with, but that one's so different it seems ...


39

I'd imagine that the youngest ever bishop would have to be Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, the second son of King George III. Image source Wikimedia Born on 16 August 1763, he was appointed as Prince Bishop of Osnabrück on 27 February 1764, at the age of just 6 months and 11 days! He would be the last Prince Bishop of Osnabrück. An ...


29

Joachim of Fiore (1135 – 30 March 1202) divided history into 3 ages according to the Holy Trinity: The Age of Marriage (God) The Age of Holiness (Christ, the son of God) The Age of the Second Coming, i.e. the impending future (the Holy Ghost) Erasmus in his work Ratio Verae Theologie (1519) divided the history of the world into five ages: The Age of the ...


24

Yes, this was perfectly common. It was seen as a privilege to be buried inside the church (the closer to the altar, the better). These are not cenotaphs, these are actual tombs, with people slowly decomposing under them. Churches must have stunk horribly (possibly why a common theme in legends of saints were that their bodies did not decompose and smelled ...


24

This is indeed already part of Thesis Number 75 of those famous 95: Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint hominem, etiam si quis per impossibile dei genitricem violasset, Est insanire. — Wikisource Translated into modern English as: 75 To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the impossible ...


22

Yes, your assessment is broadly correct but, to be fair, the Great Schism of 1054 was a very real break between the Greek eastern and Latin western churches. The split was not only along doctrinal and theological lines, but also along linguistic, political, and geographical lines. This fundamental breach has never been healed However, this did not mean that ...


21

Literate people can carry dual-language missals. My father did first communion in the old rite. Even as a child/young teen, he could follow the gestures, context and more or less the Latin sound/text, and read the Portuguese text. After some years, it was really easy. I have been at masses in Latin and other languages myself. After all, it is easy, by the ...


20

Celibacy was part of the Church's identity, as well as a strategy for keeping wealth within the Church. The American historian and Vanderbilt Professor Katherine Crawford writes that: Celibacy set the clergy apart, and instantiated patristic suspicions about sexuality as weakness and distraction from God within the moral architecture of the Church. The ...


19

In 1559, Copernicus's De Revolutionibus was placed on the Index of Forbidden Books (source). Before Copernicus, Bishop Nicole Oresme (d. 1382) advanced the hypothesis that the earth, not the heavens, rotates diurnally. He was not condemned because he did not reinterpret Holy Scripture to support his scientific view. Galileo was condemned because he ...


19

tl; dr No, Edward III paid a token tribute of £1,000 in 1333 (in expectation of receiving papal favours in return). In 1365, the English parliament debated the latest papal demand for tribute. They concluded that John’s original surrender of the realm to the Pope had been invalid, since it had lacked the assent of the bishops. From the perspective of the ...


19

The Gregorian Calendar was introduced (to the Catholic World) in 1582, the result of preparation over the preceding five or so years. However the popularization of decimal fractions would wait another three years until the publication of La Thiende [The Tenth] in 1585 by the Flemish mathematician Simon Stevin. Though not the inventor of a decimal ...


18

One might argue that secularism brought about the French Revolution; not all correlation is causation. Mike Duncan's Revolutions podcast covers the role of the church in the revolution fairly well. (at least at a high/brief level). There are a couple of factors worth mentioning. The French Revolution wasn't designed; it was a runaway cart, heading down a ...


17

Concerning the question -Did any contemporaries actually take note of the ruling? An article cited by the OP brings up a couple of possible groups which may have complied with this, The Holy Roman Empire under Conrad III and the region referred to as Flanders. So we can look at the extent of any ranged weapon bans in those locations. Conrad III This ...


17

SHORT ANSWER From the point of view of the English king and parliament, England stopped being a Papal fief in 1365. In 1365 parliament debated the latest papal request and concluded that John’s original surrender of the realm had been invalid since it had lacked the assent of the bishops. This marked the formal end to English recognition of the ...


15

With the invention of the printing press came not only books, but artwork intended for mass production. The first major artist to use printmaking as his medium was the otherwise anonymous Master of the Playing Cards, who, true to his name, made his living creating beautifully elaborate engravings for playing cards. Playing cards of the time featured ...


15

The date was moved by ten days because that's how many days the Julian calendar was off by. You may have thought the time skip was meant to compensate for the drift of nine days between 325 and 1582. Actually, it appears they were correcting the whole Julian calendar around having the equinox fall on the calendar date decided on by the Council of Nicaea. ...


15

Adoption was never banned, and in fact was only ever encouraged quite strongly. First, though, your source is a little off the mark on some of its details: For one, widows and widowers could certainly remarry and they did so all the time. It is true that second marriages weren’t always necessarily seen favorably throughout the Middle Ages; entering a ...


14

There was a certain amount of natural antagonism between the west and the Byzantines. Part of this was religious: They belonged to different sects of Christianity, and thus often viewed each other as little better than heretics or Muslims. Another part was commercial. What little commerce the west had was in direct competition with the Byzantines, whose ...


14

The trivial answer is he was executed for being a Protestant. The deeper answer is we aren't quite sure, but he had gained some powerful enemies. There was a lengthy list of charges read at his trial. While I don't have access to the full list, the first 7 appear to be unrelated to the actual act of translating The Bible into English, but rather are simply ...


14

"Decide to leave" was always an option to consider. And one could do that, of course. Just do that. But it seems the question is more about the obstacles and costs that may be associated with that? As, obviously, also when in prison anyone might decide to leave. Can't she? It is an incredibly large timeframe to analyze and no clear geographical ...


13

The motivation for the various crusades differed. The first crusade was to a large extent a response to the increasing power of the Muslim empire. This seemed to have worried Christian powers for some time, and when the Byzantine Emperor asked for military help from the Pope to fight off Turkic Muslims the Pope responded with a speech at the Council of ...


13

The three ecclesiastic electorates; Trier, Cologne, and Mainz have well documented lists of the Archbishop-Electors who served and at what times. The majority of them in the latter period of the Holy Roman Empire are indeed of noble descent. However, John I of Trier is presumably to have been of commoner descent, as stated in this 1881 publication by ...


13

France was in 1792 attacked by a coalition of states, that included several Italian states. Although the Papal States and Republic of Venice was not amongst them, Naples and Sicily was. This put the Papal States as well as Venice in the middle of the war between Austria and France, since Venice was located between France and Austria and the Papal States ...


12

It's wrong to ignore the biblical reasons (e.g. In Matthew 19:11-12) for celibacy but it's true that there were worldly ones. The celibacy rule wasn't the only thing passed during that council. Canon 2: Anyone who has bought a honor or office, shall be deprived of that. The person illegitimately dispensing that honor also shall be punished. Canon 4: ...


12

Getting accurate numbers is going to be problematic. Firstly, as you might expect, not all the records have survived. Secondly, a large number of those who were killed were never recorded in the official records of the Inquisition in the first place. It should be made clear from the outset that claims of tens of millions of deaths as a result of the ...


12

The raid was not against Gutenberg or the printing press directly - but only indirectly because he and his printers refused to support the winner in an intra-church rivalry. The Pope had named one candidate (Adolf II von Nassau) for the Archbishopric of Mainz, while the city and cathedral chapter had elected Diether von Isenberg. Adolf successfully raided ...


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