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See this as an addendum/answer to @LangLangC (I ran out of characters, otherwise i'd post it as a comment). Well I don't think it's that clear cut. First of all, the papal state itself was quite the power in Italy, which at the time was a very important region. Italy in the age of communes was among the wealthiest regions and one of the first to recover ...


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The Catholic Church was a powerful organisation. But it wasn't a secular superpower. That is quite evident when we look at the precarious situation pope Leo found himself in, when previous to the coronation he had to flee his home turf in Rome to Charlemagne. Leo just survived an assassination attempt and made a deal with Charles, the secular power of the ...


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The coronation of Charlemagne was important, but Charlemagne had the upper hand in his relationship with Leo III. Eastern Roman emperors were crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople. No one imagined the Patriarch was superior to the emperor. Nor should you imagine that the powerful Charlemagne considered himself anything but superior to the (quite ...


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Here is how the historian Dr. Ludwig Pastor explains it in his 1899 The History of the Popes vol. 5 pp. 345-7: The Jews in Spain were a source of considerable trouble to Innocent VIII. They had become a real danger to the population by their usury and their proselytising. In 1484, the Pope took measures to counteract the evil; and in the following year he ...


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