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30

We have essentially three references on this topic. Of these, only Caesar's could have had political motivations, as he was engaged in a campaign against the Britons. His account, however, is only marginal compared to the others, in that he does not clearly state that the Celts went to battle naked. On the other hand, both Polybius and Diodourus Siculus look ...


21

The answer to your question is actually to be found in the two articles you have mentioned. Official figures show that the UK population was 65.6 million in June 2016. A little under 50% of the population is male, although the exact ratio varies by age. This gives a male population of about 32 million. Your first article is about research into genes ...


21

Since I have a good memory, I remembered and/or looked up a few names of Roman citizens who lived in Gaul or Britain or came from Gaul or Britain to other parts of the empire, and who wrote. These writers could be in ancestry anything from 100 percent Roman, or Spanish, or Egyptian, or Syrian, or Greek, or whatever, to 100 percent native Gauls or Britons ...


19

This is kind of a wide-ranging question. I'll do my best with it. The Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages consists of Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx. It appears to have differentiated in Ireland, the other branches existing due to conquest/immigration. In particular, Scottish Gaelic pretty much completely replaced the Pictish element in ...


18

There is a certain Rutilius Namatianus who lived in the early 5th century Gaul. I do not know how much Celtic ancestry he had. He admired Rome and considered his family part of its "sacred Genius", but his poem clearly shows patriotic emotions to his narrower homeland: Rather will you marvel, reader, that my quick return journey (to Gaul) can so soon ...


17

It's a well known fact (or legend), told by Julius Caesar in his Commentaries on the Gallic War (Original title, "De Bello Gallico") Chapter 5-56: quo lege communi omnes puberes armati convenire coguntur; qui ex iis novissimus convenit, in conspectu multitudinis omnibus cruciatibus adfectus necatur which can be translated as Such is the custom of the ...


17

I would suggest reading Book 1 of The Gallic Wars (link has both English and Latin if you want to see the untranslated text), which is as much a political history of the conquest of Gaul as it is a military history. Julius Caesar starts the book with a description of the political landscape at the time: All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which ...


16

Ireland was not a threat to Rome By the time the Romans had reached Britain, their empire covered most of western Europe and their resources were becoming stretched. For most of the time they spent in Britain, they were more concerned with holding on to what they had rather than expanding further. Caesar invaded Britain in BCs 55 & 54 to see what was ...


16

From both a narrative (general history) and scientific (genetics), the answer is No (there was not a lot of interbreeding). (We get more precise as we go from narrative history to genetics, as shown below -- but science requires certainty which creates some confusion in narrative history). The narrative history of Roman Britain, was fairly straightforward ...


15

I'm seeing two different questions to address in here: What happened to the Celts, and Where did all these Germanics come from? What happened to the Celts? They got culturally absorbed by the Romans. The first thing that you should notice from the below two linguistic maps from 500 BC and AD is that the Green Celtic areas have been almost entirely absorbed ...


14

That is a really good question. The truth is that evidence for any sort of "cultural continuity" is scant. One word of caution though. I generally hesitate to use the word "ritual" in an archaeological context. Too often, the word has been used as a synonym for "I don't know", or, as Paul Bahn put it: Ritual - All-purpose explanation used where nothing ...


14

Those Galatians, or tribes in Anatolia of Celtic origin, sometimes even Gallic origin, were part of the south-eastern migration of Celts. This migration might also be called an invasion of the Balkans and Greece. Under Brennus they entered the greek peninsula in the third century (281 BCE) and thus before the Roman era for this part of the Mediterranean. ...


13

The perception that the Celts were promiscuous seems to be based on, at least in part, ancient writers’ interpretations of marital relationships and / or a superficial knowledge of Celtic customs and culture. On the latter point, Strabo admits to lacking evidence according to David Rankin in Celts and the Classical World, ... Strabo who says that ...


12

Performing first a search for all occurrences of "German" and then of "civiliz" in The Gallic Wars suggests that the most relevant passage is from Chapter 24 from Book 6 (my emphasis): Chapter 24 And there was formerly a time when the Gauls excelled the Germans in prowess, and waged war on them offensively, and, on account of the great number of ...


12

There is extensive documentary and archeological evidence for Celtic chain mail; one Classical writer (Varro) even specifically named the Celts as the inventors of chain mail. You can take a look at this (PDF) article, for example, which includes quotations from Classical authors, contemporary depictions from archeological relics of Celtic warriors wearing ...


11

This area has evolved much in the past few decades of research. You are asking 'ethnicity' not race (there are only 3, possibly 4, 'races' of humans on the world. I should include as an edit that this is considered an outdated model). Ethnicity divides us into smaller groups from there. http://blog.world-mysteries.com/science/how-many-major-races-are-...


10

I think you're remembering a comment in Strabo's Geography, Book 4, Chapter 4, where he quotes Ephorus saying: Ephorus, in his account, makes Celtica so excessive in its size that he assigns to the regions of Celtic most of the regions, as far as Gades, of what we now call Iberia; further, he declares that the people are fond of the Greeks, and ...


10

To invade Ireland, the Romans would first have needed to gain full control of either Wales or the Clyde estuary in Scotland, something they never succeeded in doing. The Romans very much wanted to conquer Ireland, because the Irish were a constant source of weapons and "rebellibus" support to the Scots and Welsh for attacks on Roman communities. During the ...


9

I don't know of any source that discusses Druids coming to Greece to teach and learn, however, there certainly were plenty of opportunities for Greek and Celtic teachers to interact. For example, the Greek settlement of Marseille in southern Gaul was founded around 600BC and the famous Roquepertuse temple site just north of the town is thought to show Greek ...


8

Late to this discussion, but relevant, is that the Gaels of Ireland claim to have migrated from Galicia in Spain. In the most popular legend, the son of the King of Galicia climbed a tall tower and spied a green land beyond: Ireland. (Ridiculous, because no mountain is high enough.) He sailed over, liked it, and more settlers followed. In the real world, ...


8

Note: I read the question this morning, then wrote my answer tonight. Somehow I came to think it included language and culture. It's now a bit of TMI, but I'm going to let it hang out there for a little bit because I worked on it for a few hours (sigh). Their is some controversy surrounding the relation of Brittonic and Gaelic people. One theory says that ...


7

From watching the old series "Time Team" it is common to find Iron Age and even Saxon graveyards built in and around old neolithic mounds. I don't think that this indicates great continuity in culture as much as a recognition that this was a site with some kind of power to it. In a similar fashion, Saxons sometimes clustered graves in and around Roman ...


6

This is a community wiki. Feel free to add and / or improve on this answer. As Semaphore noted in his comment, "the information simply isn't there for a lot of cases" but here are some estimates or 'best guesses' based on what little I have been able to find. Ages in 43 AD Boudica was at least in her late teens in 43 AD but Oldcat's estimate of late 20s ...


6

I think you're recalling a passage from Diodorus Siculus' The Library of History, Book V: 31 1 The Gauls are terrifying in aspect and their voices are deep and altogether harsh; when they meet together they converse with few words and in riddles, hinting darkly at things for the most part and using one word when they mean another; and they like to talk in ...


5

The Romans typically referred to them as Gauls, and the Roman name for the area of northern Italy they held was "Gallia Cisalpina" (or "Cisalpine Gaul" in modern English. The part of Gaul on "this side" of the Alps). Ancient historical sources did sometimes use terms like "Celtae" to refer to some of these people, but who exactly they did and didn't use ...


5

The use of the word 'Celts', or the non Roman spelling, 'Kelts' (Romans had no K in their alphabet and so used C) is very confusing. The Britons were not Kelts, the Romans record that the Britons or Pretani called themselves the Britanni in the south and Brittoni in the north. On Pliny's map Britain is named, and much of Europe including Gaul, is named '...


5

If the historian Tacitus simply provides too much of a Roman perspective and/or is too late in history (1st century AD), then archaeological evidence is likely the best source (as DVK previously commented). The people of Iron Age Britain Demography The Roman historian described the Britons as being descended from people who had arrived from the ...


5

1 million isn't "a lot", it's only a few percent of the male population of the British Isles. But that's not the worst that's wrong with your assertions. Not only do you assume implicitly that no migration into or out of the British Isles took place after the Roman era, but also you assume that the number of children of mixed relations between Romans and ...


5

'Ghost walls' is a concept that is used in archaeology. But maybe not just so fanciful as in these historical fiction books: Meanwhile, trial trenches at the north end of the adjacent long and narrow meadow—on the surface of which, when ploughed, stray finds of Roman pottery and coins had often been made—revealed a well-defined layer of Roman building ...


5

The names and dates of these archaeological periods can be contested, but as a preliminary, we are concerned here with the: Nordic Bronze Age (c. 1700 BCE - c. 500 BCE) Pre-Roman Iron Age (c. 500 BCE - c. 1 BCE) Roman Iron Age in northern Europe (c. 1 CE – 400 CE) Germanic Iron Age / Early Christian Ireland (c. 400 – 800 CE) Kerry L's suggestion of ...


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