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29

China is a continental scale country, thus "Han" is a category sorta like "European". One visit to Beijing or Shanghai will make it obvious that China is indeed a cosmopolitan, multi-ethnic country on a continental scale. There are a few ways to see this. Firstly, there are several major language groups, including Mandarin (920 million ...


17

Interpretations are called for here — and these are necessarily opinionated to a degree. From a recent Polish perspective, it might seem rather simple – and one-sided: There are strong indications that Beijing's position, which opposed armed intervention, had a significant influence on the Kremlin. This was by no means out of warm attitudes towards Gomułka ...


8

There was no such thing as "the eunuch faction". Generally, individual eunuchs could gain power only by virtue of their proximity to the emperor. They may form alliances or support each other against external threats (generally from the gentry), but their power was personal and specific to their own relationship with the sovereign. This leads to ...


1

This question contains two very large assumptions which, when checked, unfortunately reduce it to nothing as far as I can tell. The first is about the clan structure in Confucianism. As one of the comments points out, in Confucianism the clan is more important than anything, as can be seen in the Analects: The Governor of She said to Confucius, 'In our ...


1

In 1928 the Beiyang government was overthrown by the KMT. The KMT moved the capital to Nanking along with central observatory duties. Shanghai remained in the Central Plain time zone whose clock provider was still Zikawei (or Sicawei), the only change at the time I can find is that the Beijing Mean Solar Time was replaced by the Central Plain time for ...


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