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33

Actually some of the answer is found on Wikipedia, but in the pan-Mongolism article: In 1943, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office predicted that the Soviet Union would promote the idea of a Greater Mongolia to detach China's Inner Mongolia and East Mongolia from Chinese influence.[46] A year later, the then-Soviet satellite Tuvan People's Republic ...


25

"Banning harmful imports" was often done. Prime example being the satanic brew. Coffee was banned in Mecca, Italy, Contantinople/Ottoman Empire, Prussia. Similarly: tea was banned in East Frisia, were and when it was already the national drink. Like all other illict drugs today, they were thought of being too stimulating and foment free thought, and ...


16

Because the fall of Han is a traditional demarcation point in Chinese historical periodisation. The reason is actually less to do with the Han dynasty itself, than it is about what came afterwards. In traditional Chinese historiography, Han is followed by an era known as the "Wei-Jin-Northern and Southern Dynasties period" (魏晋南北朝)(1). You see, when the Han ...


13

Assuming you accept books as an answer (and your comment suggests that you do) there are at least two wiki pages that list books that have been banned by governments: List of books banned by governments List of authors and works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, which is to say the Vatican's list. As you will find from going through the list, books have ...


13

Discrimination against the Chinese was clearly a key factor, excluding them from higher paid and more desirable jobs aboard ship. Here is a quote from the article "‘I Espied a Chinaman’: Chinese Sailors and the Fracturing of the Nineteenth Century Pacific Maritime Labour Force" by John T. Grider, published in the journal Slavery & Abolition (2010). ...


12

Evidently, yes. The recently declassified 1946 History of the Signal Security Agency Volume II The General Cryptanalytic Problems has information on this subject. The section covering solution of Chinese secret communications is pp.180-189. (This is the internal end-of-war report of the US Army's codebreaking organization.) Messages of both the KMT and ...


11

Heinrich Georg Stahmer Nazi Diplomat to China. (src ullsteinbild: 00253012, 00294136, 00294144)


10

Ironically enough, this is likely a case of Chinese whispers. There is a relatively established crackpot "theory" that the Chinese discovered America in the 5th century or so, and called the new land "Fusang." This claim has been around for a while, and also features in the Wikipedia article linked in the question: A group of Chinese Buddhist ...


9

By giving up Macau quietly, Portugal avoided an embarrassment similar to the one they experienced when India took Goa. More seriously, this was done as part of a treaty at a point in time where Portugal was carrying out a policy of de-colonization. Portugal basically offered to return Macao to China.


8

There are two potential points of evidence that I am aware of. 1) A Mr. Moriarity and Mr. Pearson first published a paper detailing the findings of circular stone anchors similar to a type of anchor found in china that were found off the coast of California, 2) a map was published by Gavin Menzies that seemed to be a Chinese map from the 1400's showing ...


8

Many of the following are anachonistic; I wanted to test to see if there was information on Asian cosmetics in history. I think the answer is yes; I selected the following from pages of results. 3000 BCE: The Chinese stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax, and egg. The colors are used as a representation of social class: Chou dynasty ...


7

The decorated part does not explode b/c it is a launcher, not a bomb. It does not break upon falling either, b/c it was used by the navy, so the used-up launcher falls into the water, and can be recovered later. Decorations make sense. They scare the enemy (who will think they are facing a fire-breathing dragon). And they inspire pride into own soldiers. I ...


6

I'm not deeply familiar with this history and don't know Chinese, but can link you to some relevant terminology from Wikipedia. The institutional arrangements for foreign trade under the Qing dyansty prior to the Opium War are widely known as the Canton System. Apparently the primary Chinese term for this was yīkǒu tōngshāng (一口通商) meaning "single [port] ...


6

After conquering other Chinese Kingdoms, the king of Qin proclaimed the Chinese Empire of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC. The Qin dynasty soon fell, in 206 BC, but the Han Dynasty was founded soon after in 202 BC. The Western Han Dynasty ruled China from 202 BC to AD 9, and the Eastern Han Dynasty ruled China from AD 23 to AD 220, followed by the Three Kingdoms ...


6

According to this Wikipedia list: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_empires1 The Xia dynasty was at its largest about 1800 BC with an estimated area of about 450,000 square kilometers or 170,000 square miles. The Shang dynasty was at its largest about 1122 BC with an estimated area of about 1,250,000 square kilometers or 480,000 square miles. ...


5

On the contrary. Portugal started building Macau International Airport (very expensive) after the handover of Macau decision was already settled between Portugal and China (1987). https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macau_International_Airport https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Declaration_on_the_Question_of_Macau Even more, Portugal offered to withdraw ...


5

Firstly, your scope is too broad. As I mentioned at your comment line, the succession of each dynasty is very complicated in China, as if there is no rule but there is a definite rule I describe I will describe under the bar. For example, in Yuan dynasty's case, very broadly saying, the emperor of each dynasty was elected according to the decision by ...


5

This is the handwritten decree that it was referring to (relevant content boxed in red): Text (with corrections; courtesy of https://kknews.cc/history/epbl22y.html) 「恭親王從議政以來,妄自尊大,諸多驕敖(傲),以(依)仗爵高權重,目無君上,看朕沖齡,諸多挾致(制),往往諳始(暗使)離間,不可細問。每日召見,趾高氣揚,言語之間,許多取巧,滿是胡談亂道。嗣(似)此情形,以後何以能辦國事?若不即早宣示,朕歸政之時,何以能用人行正(政)?」宣布「恭親王著毋庸在軍機處議政,革去一切差使,不准干預公事」!


4

I highly doubt it. Bar one line, that almost-exact quote The greatest traitor has always resembled an honest man and the greatest falsehood comes across as truth. Righteousness and evil cannot be discerned by their appearance. People have decided wrongly about me in the past. Today they still misjudge me, and may continue to do so in ...


4

China and Soviet Union were fighting for primacy in communist world, they both needed Vietnam for that First we need to notice that Sino-Soviet split started before Vietnam war, and long before 1969. Without going into too much details, conflict was mostly ideological but some national interest were also involved. Both sides criticized each other, but that ...


4

I have only very superficial knowledge of Chinese history and the following is mostly based on some quick Wikipedia reading. The Qing did not make much effort to keep in contact with the outside world. On the one hand, by the nineteenth century it was in a long slow decline and faced internal problems, culminating in a series of rebellions. On the other ...


4

Deng was paraphrasing a well-known Chinese proverb. Context change in the Chinese foreign policy, and avoidance of conflict with the great powers (mostly the US, USSR collapsed soon after) . Before Deng Xiaoping , Chinese policy was to criticize the USA and the USSR on ideological grounds, and sometimes confront them directly (Korea, Vietnam, Sino-Soviet ...


3

It certainly seems to have been the only state in South Asia accorded that status by the Ming Dynasty. In the paper The impact of Zheng He's expeditions on Indian Ocean interactions by Tansen Sen (one of the main sources cited by the Wikipedia article), the author states that: As part of his fifth expedition, which sailed from China in 1417, Zheng He ...


3

It is my understanding that the Han Dynasty represents the first unification of China, and that it lasts for a very long time. It is often presented as comparable to the Roman Empire, and I think it is pretty obvious for European history to understand why the Roman Empire is a major breakpoint. The Han Dynasty was able to unify China, there was some ...


3

Chinese population in Straits Settlements The "wave of Chinese emigration to Malaya beginning in the early 19th century" actually really took off in the 1840s (i.e. towards the end of your specified period 1800-50). In Singapore, the Chinese population almost doubled from around 28,000 in 1850 to about 50,000 in 1860 and 103,000 by 1888. For the bigger ...


3

There is a book called They All Discovered America, by Charles Michael Boland, 1961, which listed and discussed all the claims of pre Columbian discoveries of America that the author could find. Each chapter should have a discussion of the evidence for the claim in that chapter. So that book could be a fairly good guide (allowing for Boland's biases) to the ...


3

I don't believe that these are merely popular stories. If you at least partially trust the content in the Draft History of Qing: The following translations given are my own; caution: may be heavily paraphrased. 《清史稿》卷445 吳兆泰,字星階,籍麻城。與仁守友善,互相厲以道義。光緒二年進士,閱十年,以編修考授御史。時國防廢弛,海軍尤不振,朝廷乃移其費修頤和園。兆泰上疏力爭,略謂:「畿輔奇災,嗷鴻遍野,僵僕載塗,此正朝廷減膳徹樂之時,非土木興作之日。乞罷園工,...


2

Even under the early Qing when silver was relatively abundant, taxes weren't necessarily paid by households with physical silver, only assessed / denominated in terms of silver. As one article (which cites a book by Man-hong Lin) states: Qing fiscal revenue... was levied in silver tael but collected from small holders who typically paid in copper cash. ...


2

March 17 appears to be the correct date. In the Chinese Wikipedia article on the Xuzhou campaign, the timeline has him dying on the 17th. His Baidu biography goes into detail about the action on each day of the Battle of Teng County. It describes the Japanese breaching the walls on the 3rd day (16th), before describing Wang's death the following day when ...


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