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43

Victor Henry Mair is an American Sinologist and professor of Chinese at the University of Pennsylvania, and this is what he wrote (emphasis mine): An English language report in The Quarterly Bulletin of Chinese Bibliography states that, on October 4, 1935, the government “authorized” the use of simplified characters in official and private documents. In ...


38

Because of emigration restrictions from the Soviet Union imposed from at least the 1920's on, there were very few ethnic Russians of recent arrival in the U.S., and the Western world in general, during the 1950's. Those ethnic Russians (and Ukrainians) had mostly arrived during the late 19th, or very early 20th, century. By the 1950's ethnic Slavs were ...


32

Actually some of the answer is found on Wikipedia, but in the pan-Mongolism article: In 1943, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office predicted that the Soviet Union would promote the idea of a Greater Mongolia to detach China's Inner Mongolia and East Mongolia from Chinese influence.[46] A year later, the then-Soviet satellite Tuvan People's Republic ...


25

"Banning harmful imports" was often done. Prime example being the satanic brew. Coffee was banned in Mecca, Italy, Contantinople/Ottoman Empire, Prussia. Similarly: tea was banned in East Frisia, were and when it was already the national drink. Like all other illict drugs today, they were thought of being too stimulating and foment free thought, and ...


16

Because the fall of Han is a traditional demarcation point in Chinese historical periodisation. The reason is actually less to do with the Han dynasty itself, than it is about what came afterwards. In traditional Chinese historiography, Han is followed by an era known as the "Wei-Jin-Northern and Southern Dynasties period" (魏晋南北朝)(1). You see, when the Han ...


13

Discrimination against the Chinese was clearly a key factor, excluding them from higher paid and more desirable jobs aboard ship. Here is a quote from the article "‘I Espied a Chinaman’: Chinese Sailors and the Fracturing of the Nineteenth Century Pacific Maritime Labour Force" by John T. Grider, published in the journal Slavery & Abolition (2010). ...


13

Assuming you accept books as an answer (and your comment suggests that you do) there are at least two wiki pages that list books that have been banned by governments: List of books banned by governments List of authors and works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, which is to say the Vatican's list. As you will find from going through the list, books have ...


12

I heard from many sources that the fictional 1984 Robin Williams movie Moscow on the Hudson had it pretty well nailed*. Russians didn't really have it significantly worse than any other immigrant group, but that isn't necessarily saying much. People who came to the US expecting life to be all wine and roses were of course in for a shock. My memory of things ...


10

There is a picture of that oracle bone in the chapter Chinese and Korean Star Maps and Catalogs by F. Richard Stephenson in the University of Chicago's History of Cartography (p514): There is also a sketch of the bone, together with a brief discussion of the inscription on pp 3-4 of The Astronomy Revolution: 400 Years of Exploring the Cosmos by Donald G. ...


9

"1960 through 1980" is a very interesting choice of time periods. I suspect the claimed increase in life expectancy at birth during that period is true, but it's also misleading. 1960 was the worst part of the Great Chinese Famine, where somewhere between 15 million and 45 million people died; famines tend to be hardest on the very young. 1980, on the ...


8

To be fair, the J10 also looks similar to the Eurofighter Typhoon. If it really hinges on the canards, pneumatics and rumours… At first I read the question as "did Chinese spies steal" information to be used in their fighter jet. But I guess the taxpayer angle (which might be 'paying for it' in yet other ways) distracts from the issue: is the plane really ...


7

I don't know how useful this will be to you but hopefully these links will at least lead you to what you are looking for. The British Library has more than 450 oracle bones and there are some links on the page, such as a pdf catalog and digitized manuscripts. You could write them and ask if these have translations to view and they should know where you can ...


7

The decorated part does not explode b/c it is a launcher, not a bomb. It does not break upon falling either, b/c it was used by the navy, so the used-up launcher falls into the water, and can be recovered later. Decorations make sense. They scare the enemy (who will think they are facing a fire-breathing dragon). And they inspire pride into own soldiers. I ...


7

By giving up Macau quietly, Portugal avoided an embarrassment similar to the one they experienced when India took Goa. More seriously, this was done as part of a treaty at a point in time where Portugal was carrying out a policy of de-colonization. Portugal basically offered to return Macao to China.


6

The wiki articles' focus on the Communist/Nationalist dispute create an impression that repairs were delayed due to political disagreements. However, while certainly a factor, the most significant source of delay was mundane and technical: the repair works were destroyed by floods. Efforts to seal the breach began in March 1946, with an original goal to ...


6

Compared to modern legal systems, the scope of the Ming (and similarly Qing) legal system is extremely limited, primarily as a means for the Imperial court to govern its bureaucracy of scholar-officials, down to the local magistrates. The Imperial court was not concerned about governing citizens directly, rather it was through layers of hierarchy, from ...


6

I'm not deeply familiar with this history and don't know Chinese, but can link you to some relevant terminology from Wikipedia. The institutional arrangements for foreign trade under the Qing dyansty prior to the Opium War are widely known as the Canton System. Apparently the primary Chinese term for this was yīkǒu tōngshāng (一口通商) meaning "single [port] ...


6

After conquering other Chinese Kingdoms, the king of Qin proclaimed the Chinese Empire of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC. The Qin dynasty soon fell, in 206 BC, but the Han Dynasty was founded soon after in 202 BC. The Western Han Dynasty ruled China from 202 BC to AD 9, and the Eastern Han Dynasty ruled China from AD 23 to AD 220, followed by the Three Kingdoms ...


5

All the information you need is in your question; you just need to look at things from the perspective of a paranoid, totalitarian regime like the Chinese Communist Party. Falun Gong is a physical fitness movement which practices rhythmic motion and meditation. Initially Falun Gong was seen as a benign movement. However over a decade, it rapidly grew; ...


5

Hong Kong is an excellent harbour and while land based it was also seen as excellent to defend for the naval power of England. But these strategic basics only explain the smaller part of the story. If taken for granted and without further explanation it represents a post-hoc reasoning, that illustrates why hindsight sometimes is the opposite of 20/20 as in ...


5

By 1940, Japan had gotten most of what it wanted from China. It had obtained Manchuria in 1931, and the industrialized northeast corridor of China, between Beijing and Shanghai in 1937, and most of the remaining industrial belt along the Yangtze River, up to Wuhan, by 1938. In the following two years, Japan occupied the ports, and most of the coast of South ...


5

Firstly, your scope is too broad. As I mentioned at your comment line, the succession of each dynasty is very complicated in China, as if there is no rule but there is a definite rule I describe I will describe under the bar. For example, in Yuan dynasty's case, very broadly saying, the emperor of each dynasty was elected according to the decision by ...


4

I have only very superficial knowledge of Chinese history and the following is mostly based on some quick Wikipedia reading. The Qing did not make much effort to keep in contact with the outside world. On the one hand, by the nineteenth century it was in a long slow decline and faced internal problems, culminating in a series of rebellions. On the other ...


4

China and Soviet Union were fighting for primacy in communist world, they both needed Vietnam for that First we need to notice that Sino-Soviet split started before Vietnam war, and long before 1969. Without going into too much details, conflict was mostly ideological but some national interest were also involved. Both sides criticized each other, but that ...


4

I highly doubt it. Bar one line, that almost-exact quote The greatest traitor has always resembled an honest man and the greatest falsehood comes across as truth. Righteousness and evil cannot be discerned by their appearance. People have decided wrongly about me in the past. Today they still misjudge me, and may continue to do so in ...


3

Stillwell wanted to move the Chinese defensive effort "south." Stillwell wanted to move as much of Chiang Kai Shek's army to Burma, where it could be more easily trained and supplied from India, and where Stillwell's direct control, and protected from the bad influence of Chiang's "corrupt" (warlord) generals. This included "Force X" which left China and ...


3

Towards the end of one of the prefaces of the book (there were two prefaces, 前序 and 松庭先生後序), it states: 大德癸卯上元日,臨川前進士莫若序。 which can be roughly translated as: On the day of Shangyuan (lit. first full moon festival) in the Kuí-Mǎo year during Dà-Dé era, 臨川前進士 (this was most likely the honorary title of the author of the preface) presents this preface. ...


3

Chinese population in Straits Settlements The "wave of Chinese emigration to Malaya beginning in the early 19th century" actually really took off in the 1840s (i.e. towards the end of your specified period 1800-50). In Singapore, the Chinese population almost doubled from around 28,000 in 1850 to about 50,000 in 1860 and 103,000 by 1888. For the bigger ...


3

It certainly seems to have been the only state in South Asia accorded that status by the Ming Dynasty. In the paper The impact of Zheng He's expeditions on Indian Ocean interactions by Tansen Sen (one of the main sources cited by the Wikipedia article), the author states that: As part of his fifth expedition, which sailed from China in 1417, Zheng He ...


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