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34

Actually some of the answer is found on Wikipedia, but in the pan-Mongolism article: In 1943, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office predicted that the Soviet Union would promote the idea of a Greater Mongolia to detach China's Inner Mongolia and East Mongolia from Chinese influence.[46] A year later, the then-Soviet satellite Tuvan People's Republic ...


25

"Banning harmful imports" was often done. Prime example being the satanic brew. Coffee was banned in Mecca, Italy, Contantinople/Ottoman Empire, Prussia. Similarly: tea was banned in East Frisia, were and when it was already the national drink. Like all other illict drugs today, they were thought of being too stimulating and foment free thought, and ...


21

The essay is indeed originally in Chinese, with the title 滅國新法論, which may aid further searches. It is collected in full in 《飲冰室合集》, as well as the 《梁啟超文集》 in abridged form. The abridged version is available online from ctext.org, starting from paragraph 125. Wikisource likewise contains the same document. This version apparently excludes detailed summaries ...


17

Because the fall of Han is a traditional demarcation point in Chinese historical periodisation. The reason is actually less to do with the Han dynasty itself, than it is about what came afterwards. In traditional Chinese historiography, Han is followed by an era known as the "Wei-Jin-Northern and Southern Dynasties period" (魏晋南北朝)(1). You see, when the Han ...


14

Discrimination against the Chinese was clearly a key factor, excluding them from higher paid and more desirable jobs aboard ship. Here is a quote from the article "‘I Espied a Chinaman’: Chinese Sailors and the Fracturing of the Nineteenth Century Pacific Maritime Labour Force" by John T. Grider, published in the journal Slavery & Abolition (2010). ...


13

Assuming you accept books as an answer (and your comment suggests that you do) there are at least two wiki pages that list books that have been banned by governments: List of books banned by governments List of authors and works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, which is to say the Vatican's list. As you will find from going through the list, books have ...


12

Heinrich Georg Stahmer Nazi Diplomat to China. (src ullsteinbild: 00253012, 00294136, 00294144)


12

Evidently, yes. The recently declassified 1946 History of the Signal Security Agency Volume II The General Cryptanalytic Problems has information on this subject. The section covering solution of Chinese secret communications is pp.180-189. (This is the internal end-of-war report of the US Army's codebreaking organization.) Messages of both the KMT and ...


12

We may not yet know: On the heels of the European epidemic, a widespread disaster occurred in China during 1353–1354. Chinese accounts of this wave of the disease record a spread to eight distinct areas: Hubei, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, and Suiyuan,12 throughout the Mongol and Chinese empires. Historian William McNeill noted that ...


11

Ironically enough, this is likely a case of Chinese whispers. There is a relatively established crackpot "theory" that the Chinese discovered America in the 5th century or so, and called the new land "Fusang." This claim has been around for a while, and also features in the Wikipedia article linked in the question: A group of Chinese Buddhist ...


9

By giving up Macau quietly, Portugal avoided an embarrassment similar to the one they experienced when India took Goa. More seriously, this was done as part of a treaty at a point in time where Portugal was carrying out a policy of de-colonization. Portugal basically offered to return Macao to China.


8

There are two potential points of evidence that I am aware of. 1) A Mr. Moriarity and Mr. Pearson first published a paper detailing the findings of circular stone anchors similar to a type of anchor found in china that were found off the coast of California, 2) a map was published by Gavin Menzies that seemed to be a Chinese map from the 1400's showing ...


8

On the contrary. Portugal started building the (very expensive) Macau International Airport after the handover of Macau decision was already settled between Portugal and China (1987). Even more, Portugal offered to withdraw from Macau in late 1974, but China declined the offer in favour of a later time because it sought to preserve international and ...


8

It sounds like you are referring to compulsory education. By and large, compulsory education appears to be a trailing indicator of heavy literacy, not a leading one. In other words, once a critical mass of people in a society become literate, it becomes seen as a necessity to function in society (either for the child, for society, or a combination of the ...


8

This question betrays misunderstandings about human nature, let alone USSR & PRC politics. Some people are ambitious. Ambition isn't always bad, but it can be, especially in an environment that does not value human life. Some people are both ambitious and reckless, and will keep climbing even if it puts them and others in danger. More to the point, in ...


6

If you have to pick a single decade, it was the 1980s. Sorry for the text wall, but the full story is a little messier than that. Even during the heyday of European imperialism, when its science and technology let it run roughshod over most of the world, some people saw that China was already a superpower in waiting. The UK didn't so much win its war against ...


6

After conquering other Chinese Kingdoms, the king of Qin proclaimed the Chinese Empire of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC. The Qin dynasty soon fell, in 206 BC, but the Han Dynasty was founded soon after in 202 BC. The Western Han Dynasty ruled China from 202 BC to AD 9, and the Eastern Han Dynasty ruled China from AD 23 to AD 220, followed by the Three Kingdoms ...


6

According to this Wikipedia list: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_empires1 The Xia dynasty was at its largest about 1800 BC with an estimated area of about 450,000 square kilometers or 170,000 square miles. The Shang dynasty was at its largest about 1122 BC with an estimated area of about 1,250,000 square kilometers or 480,000 square miles. ...


5

What was the de facto rule by which the imperial title was transmitted in various Chinese dynasties? What were the rules of succession during the different dynasties[?] The de facto rule of imperial Chinese succession, like the de jure rule, is that laid out by your source:¹ agnatic primogeniture. The first bit about China's five good emperors ...


4

China and Soviet Union were fighting for primacy in communist world, they both needed Vietnam for that First we need to notice that Sino-Soviet split started before Vietnam war, and long before 1969. Without going into too much details, conflict was mostly ideological but some national interest were also involved. Both sides criticized each other, but that ...


4

Deng was paraphrasing a well-known Chinese proverb. Context change in the Chinese foreign policy, and avoidance of conflict with the great powers (mostly the US, USSR collapsed soon after) . Before Deng Xiaoping , Chinese policy was to criticize the USA and the USSR on ideological grounds, and sometimes confront them directly (Korea, Vietnam, Sino-Soviet ...


4

Was there intermixing between Brits and Hong Kongers during Britain's control of the territory? Yes According to the South China Morning Post: In her book Eurasians, MIT professor [Emma J. Teng] contrasts attitudes towards interracial marriage in three jurisdictions, and how mixed-race families in Hong Kong were able to grow wealthy despite facing ...


3

There is a book called They All Discovered America, by Charles Michael Boland, 1961, which listed and discussed all the claims of pre Columbian discoveries of America that the author could find. Each chapter should have a discussion of the evidence for the claim in that chapter. So that book could be a fairly good guide (allowing for Boland's biases) to the ...


3

张作霖只说了一个“打”字,就昏死过去,再也没有醒来……。 "打" could be the verb in a sentence. That means 'make a phone/telegraph to call his fifth son back soon'. Because he was in a lethal condition and could not finish the whole sentence. This matches the following return of Xueliang Zhang disguised as a wound soldier.


3

Well, as other posters have noted, you're starting from some faulty premises. Whilst most of China is quite culturally and ethnically diverse, there are significant areas especially on the coast and river plains which are mostly Han Chinese. The image Semaphore linked shows the opposite of what he was trying to say. The areas of that map that you and he ...


3

It is my understanding that the Han Dynasty represents the first unification of China, and that it lasts for a very long time. It is often presented as comparable to the Roman Empire, and I think it is pretty obvious for European history to understand why the Roman Empire is a major breakpoint. The Han Dynasty was able to unify China, there was some ...


3

TL;DR: Medals were exchanged, but the only that references can be found for happened much later on, and while Chang Kai-sheck did not receive this specific medal he did receive some, and some Chinese nationalists did receive this award. And it was not the Republican government but Franco. This paper(in Spanish) summarizes the diplomatic relationships. In ...


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