14

Found him. He was Justus Friedrich Carl Hecker (1795 – 1850), doctor and professor at the Frederick William University in Berlin. His essay on the plague was "Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert: Nach den Quellen für Ärzte und gebildete Nichtärzte bearbeitet." According to the Wikipedia he is the founder of the study of the history of disease. Note ...


11

Well, the potential for using time to measure longitude was certainly understood by Hipparchus in the second century BC. He proposed that longitudes of distant places could be calculated by measuring the local solar time of lunar eclipses, which are visible over half the Earth's surface. However, the available means of timekeeping weren't sufficiently ...


10

The date depends on whether one is referring to date of completion or date of printing. The map was completed by April 1750 but the 1st edition was not printed until June 1752. The earliest public presentation of the map would appear to be the 8th of April 1750 when it was presented to the Academie des Sciences in Paris. Arader Galleries says: BAUCHE, ...


10

I know this would not be to OP's liking (considering his expressed opinion of Chinese history), but other people might find this interesting. The earliest event in Chinese history with a verifiable year is the Interregnum following the expulsion of King Li from the Zhou Kingdom. With the king exiled, his chief ministers ruled the realm in his stead. They ...


7

There are lots of documents in Sumerian and Akkadian with precise dates mentioned in the documents themselves. These go back well into the 3rd millennium BC. These can be converted without difficulty into Julian or Gregorian dates. But of course, all this depends on what you mean by “events”. If you include astronomical events visible on earth (eclipses, ...


6

Many different local calendars were used in the eastern and western parts of the Roman empire. The Julian calendar introduced about 44 BC was the official calendar of the Roman republic and empire and was used by Roman citizens, the army, and the imperial administration. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_calendar The Julian calendar could be used with ...


4

Essentially when they understood that the Earth is round, and the Sun rotates about it with a period one day. Ancient Greeks credited this discovery to Pythagoras. Modern scientists consider Pythagoras a somewhat legendary figure, so the name of the first person who said this is unknown. Anyway this was a common knowledge in the (educated) Hellenistic ...


3

This is a tricky question to answer! Based solely on textual evidence, the core component of the Passover seder - the haggadah - is not written out in full until the siddur of Rav Saadiah Gaon in the 10th century, and it certainly undergoes some modification since then. Other ancient versions of the haggadah can be found in the Machzor Vitry (11th century, ...


2

Respectfully, I doubt that your question can be easily answered. Alas, my reply does not fit into a comment, so here you go. The Jewish tradition is alive in Jewish homes; it keeps evolving as we speak. Grab a Chabad edition of Haggadah Shel Pesach and you will find there many additions and elaborations by various Hassidic authorities over the last 2 ...


2

It was fairly widely available in the 19th century as mass manufacturing started to branch out from military materiel and animal rights started to become an issue within society. It wasn't, however, used heavily for furniture until more recently. If it was described as leather in the 1940's, it was probably actual leather. As noted by KillingTime, the US ...


2

Herodotus and Ctesias clearly contradict to each other, so there is no obvious answer on this question. Yet Manetho's "king list", as it was cited by Sextus Africanus, contains the name of Psammetichos (Psammecherit) just after Amasis, so Herodotus' version is usually preferred. This argument could be considered as weak, because Sextus Africanus could only ...


2

I figured this out. Amyrtaeus the Pharoah had a grandfather named Amyrtaeus who participated in the Inaros Rebellion and ruled the Western Delta from Sau for some time about 25 years before Herodotus and this is the person being referred to.


2

Proleptic Julian for most dates in ancient history. See here, last paragraph. There is a third possibility, by the way: For events from the Roman Republic, dates are often given according to the Roman calendar at the time. I recall reading in one modern text that an event happened on the last day of the year and in another that it happened on 29 December--...


2

I was keen on finding a similar answer (or, at least, question) to the Eastern Roman world which led me to read a bit on the AUC timekeeping, and from what Wiki says, the AUC was never rightly an official way of measuring time, but rather a method to refer to special years and such. This changed when the Principes found it a convenient way to highlight the ...


1

Its likely pretty much everyone who understood that the Earth was a sphere also understood this. All you'd need to see it is a sphere of your own to act as a model. Eratosthenes in the third century BC not only understood this, but used it to calculate the circumference of the earth. Basicly, he knew what day the sun was directly overhead at noon where he ...


1

When the eight remaining crewmembers of Magellan's circumnavigation of the earth reached the Cape Verde Islands in July of 1522, they were puzzled by their apparent loss of one day with respect to the actual date on the islands. https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_discovery.htm So, the knowledge of change in sunrise time with longitude would ...


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