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In The Gathering Storm, Churchill describes the key scene with Chamberlain and Lord Halifax thus: At eleven o'clock I was again summoned to Downing Street by the Prime Minister. There once again I found Lord Halifax. ... [The Prime Minister] told us that he was satisfied that it was beyond his power to form a National Government. ... The question therefore, ...


15

In brief, Churchill became a PM because Lord Halifax did not want the job (at that particular time). The details of exactly why he did not want the job vary a bit from one account to another, but all accounts paint a very consistent picture. There is a lovely description of this story, with references, in the Wikipedia article on Lord Halifax. In particular:...


15

Mushroom is used here as a metaphor/analogy for appearing suddenly, growing fast to immense sizes, seemingly out of nowhere — but also not being a producer — of new/primary biomass, rather a destruent, decomposer or consumer —, not from a solid base, not stable in itself, prone to disappearing as fast they came into view. This of course only understands the ...


9

Why did Churchill choose de Gaulle to lead the French resistance? (and was it really up to Churchill to decide?) Churchill could decide among what he had available. De Gaulle was in the UK, had the will to continue the war, had shown that he had initiative. He had got some fame during the war. Here his relatively lower rank could even be an advantage; a ...


7

The person who would replace Chamberlain had to form a National Coalition, and, hence, had to have Labour backing. Labour leadership did not back Halifax because of his prior appeasement policies, so even though the Labour NEC did not express a preferred PM, Labour would support Churchill over Halifax. In addition, Halifax had both personal ailments and was ...


4

A BBC article from 15 Feb 2017, Winston Churchill's views on aliens revealed in lost essay on the same subject has a relevant detail (emphasis mine): Dr Livio told BBC News that there were no firm plans to publish the article because of issues surrounding the copyright. However, he said the Churchill Museum was working to resolve these so that the ...


3

A large part of the issue was that de Gaulle (born 1890) was one of the few French leaders who was the optimal age (around 50) for generalship and national leadership. Foreign contemporaries in this group include America's Dwight Eisenhower (1890), Britain's John Verreker, Lord Gort (1886), and Germany's Erwin Rommel (1890). Adolf Hitler himself was born a ...


3

I don't know if that counts as a full answer, but it might be worth more than a comment. De Gaulle was one of the French proponents of armored warfare. France lost partially due to its insistence on diluting tanks amongst infantry units, which De Gaulle had argued against. On the other hand Germany won precisely by following the type of warfare that had ...


2

TL; DR : De Gaulle was one of many people who favored continuing the armed resistance against the Nazis. Being less known and less important served him well, as he could flee to Britain without being accused of deserting his country or reneging on his responsibilities. In the same time, once in London, he was protected from the Vichy government, which moved ...


1

There is nothing mysterious about this. Churchill is comparing the previous "Dark Age" which was made possible by the techniques and knowledge of the medieval world, with what might have been possible in a "new Dark Age" guided by the light and understanding of modern science. He is not obliquely or covertly referring to any specific ...


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