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51

First because most cities in France are much smaller than cities in the US. Compare a list of French cities by population with the same for the US. There are 11 cities in the US bigger than the 2nd largest in France (Marseille at ~855,000) and 34 bigger than the 3rd largest (Lyon at ~500,000). Second, it does have big Atlantic coastal cities... by French ...


29

I've combined the data in: List of largest cities throughout history World population estimates The winners are: Modern Tokyo (metropolitan area), home to 0.55% of the world's population 700 AD Chang'an, home to 0.44% of the world's population 200 AD Rome, home to 0.42% of the world's population 1 AD Rome, 400 AD Rome, and 1900 AD London follow, all ...


24

The answer is threefold: 1) Transportation costs: agricultural societies had, since the beginning, been restricted by the amount of food one could produce locally. What 'freed' the British poor from having to work the land (please note I'm not arguing that this was in their favor) was the import of large amount of cheap food, as well as the materials to ...


23

Bordeaux and Nantes are major cities and their proximity to the Atlantic coast was key to their development so there is nothing unusual about France in this respect, it does have some major port cities on the Atlantic coast. The question, then, is really one of local geography. Those cities are located a few tens of kilometres away from the actual coastline,...


23

is their any other place that could have held this moniker prior to that time? Yes. Washington (population 67,000) is a town in historic County Durham in England. The earliest extant references to it appear in Old English and date to 1096. As your question didn't specify that the place had to be within the United States, this would be the oldest place with ...


17

There are many reasons for why cities seem to have an inordinate amount of churches for the population. The first of this is that some churches are never built as public churches. Many churches are built to show off how devout and wealthy you are. Kościół św. Wojciecha fits at best a 100 people standing up, and is clearly one of those churches. Also ...


17

According to this article from the Free Lance-Star (referencing American Philatelist), there were seven other US towns called "Washington" that were established prior to Washington D.C. It indicates that Washington, Virginia was the oldest to be surveyed and populated in 1749 (although it only achieved 'town' status in the 1790s) and Washington, North ...


15

Wages. Labour was too cheap for an Industrial revolution. Early industrialisation must be profitable in order to be widely adopted and sustainable. With cheap labour the replacement of human labour with machines just isn't profitable. Research and development of early machines is expensive and slow, if there is no pay off, (trey making of money but cheaper ...


15

I would not say "most" but many people owned them. In the big cities, especially children (I am not talking about rural areas). Streets were NOT crowded with bikes (cannot even compare with Denmark or China, and even with Germany). Bikes were affordable and available, but few adult people in the big cities used them for transportation. They were used more ...


14

The implication of the question is that Meso-American cultures didn't employ any architectural defenses ("walls"). I don't think that's true at all. Below is a pictoral recreation of Cahokia. That city was probably far too large and spread out to totally wall up, but you can clearly see there was a wall around the central districts. The text with the ...


13

The British bombardment of Copenhagen in September 1807, to deny to the French the possible use of the Danish fleet, seems to fit the bill. The impacts, explosions, and fires resulted in nearly 1,000 direct civilian casualties in a neutral country. It also delayed and nearly ended attempts to publish the first modern edition of Beowulf, due to scholarly ...


11

There wasn't enough work. This was originally a problem created by slave labor: wealthy nobles owned slaves and large estates, and small farmers could not compete with them. They had to sell their land or work for a wealthy patrician, and a lot of them eventually gave up and moved to the city. This was a constant source of civil unrest in Rome and quite a ...


11

No, that was part of the defense strategy. Making the walls a little bit stronger over all wouldn't help as much as building a very strong keep. That's the general idea behind it. You are absolutely right to assume that those heavily fortified castles within cities were there for a reason: usually to keep the citizens at bay. In many fortified cities those ...


10

The primary mechanisms that motivated the industrial revolution were automation and efficient utilization of natural resources to generate power to drive automation. There were certainly also social factors, but I'd prefer to focus primarily on the technical, since this seems to offer a clearer path to an answer. The Romans did harness power from gravity (...


8

One reason may be the size of the city. The Freie Hansestadt Bremen has 661,000 inhabitants (including Bremen and Bremerhaven), Hamburg has 1.7 million inhabitants. Lübeck has only 213,000 inhabitants. There are also discussions to merge Bremen with Niedersachsen because of the size. So it would be strange if there would be a new smaller Bundesland. Maybe ...


8

Streets in East Germany are as wide as they are because the GDR was modern. More modern than West Germany. "Modern" here is an architectural term, not an evaluation of any proclaimed state ideology. Socialist city planning is mainly influenced by modernism and that was a global trend. Streets in the GDR are also not that wide, if you compare them to either ...


7

Everyone is missing some fundemental preconditions of industrialization. Namely, there needs to be a large class of people who must purchase the consumer goods and must sell their labor to survive. This is the basis of production and of demand. We got a working class in England first because England, by early modern times, was a mostly yeoman (small farmer)...


7

The answer by Alex is totally correct. The bicycles were used almost exclusively for recreation, mostly by children and teenagers. There were no bicycle roads so people used them mostly in parks. There were also no bicycle locks available so one could not leave a bicycle at a supermarket or school entrance. It was also difficult to take a bicycle to the ...


7

The very George Washington's surname suggests that his ancestors originated from a similarly called place in England.


7

I believe many did. Hopewell (mound builders) : This Hopewell mound in Newark Ohio looks an awe-full lot like a circular wall with a gate in the upper left hand corner. regarding the Inca, these look like defensive walls to me.


7

Geographically, the US Pacific Northwest is defined by two main factors: Very rugged terrain directly against the coast. This makes getting around difficult, and puts navigable waterways at a premium. The Columbia River. The largest and most important river system in the region. It drains an area larger than the entire country of France, including parts of ...


6

This happening is known as The Great Hanoi Rat Massacre. It took place in 1902 in Hanoi, which was a French colony at that time. At the beginning action was a success, but as the bounty was granted for every rat's tail, soon the town was occupied by rats with cut out tails, that were left alive for breeding, and there were more and more rat farms in the ...


6

While Bendikt Grammer's answer is part of the truth, by no means all jobs were done by slaves and the Roman masses did a lot more than sit around depending on the state bread dole or rich patrons. There were many jobs: http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/ancient_roman_jobs.htm e.g. bookseller, shoemaker, artist, bodyguard, tavern keeper, building ...


6

Portland sits at the confluence of the Columbia and Willamette rivers, along with some lesser rivers like the Clackamas. It's ideally situated for many reasons. Perhaps more important, the mouth of the Columbia River, known as the Columbia Bar, is a terribly dangerous place for shipping. It would be absolutely foolish to try to put a major port there.


5

Madrid is the capital of Spain because King Philip II of Spain moved the court there. Where the court (and king) go, so does the government (in a monarchy). And he was arguably the most "dominant" Spanish king of "modern" times (Spain's navy declined after the failure of the Armada). No subsequent king of Spain saw fit to overturn Philip II's decision. ...


5

Actually there are political groups going in the opposite direction. There is a widespread agreement that 16 Länder are too many, but also widespread disagreement how to do it. This page is German, but you can look at the maps ...


5

Remember that "necessity is the mother of invention". The Hawaiians had fresh water, fruits, vegetable, fish and meat and drinking & cutting utensils easily at hand and had no need for heating or warm clothing. They had so much leisure time that they did need means of diversion, so they invented the surf board and underwater swim goggles. They also ...


5

More people. Europe in the era of the Romans has an estimated population of 30 million people, which increased to 100 million people in 1800 and now to 700 million people. You do not produce goods just for fun. You must also have people who need to buy the products so you make a profit from producing goods. And if you invent machines to work for you, you ...


5

There is a village called Washington in West Sussex, England. According to the Washington Parish Council: Its name – first recorded in 947 AD – means, in Old English, ‘Homestead of Wassa’s people’. This etymology (home of Wassa) is also the etymology of the name of President Washington and thus also Washington DC. The fact that the etymology is the same, ...


5

Mdina in Malta is fairly authentic. It (and other sites in Malta) appeared in Game of Thrones. There are many more authentic places in Europe. Cursory googling for things like "medieval town Europe" yields plenty of other examples. Which towns or cities can one visit to experience this sense of space? There are far too many to enumerate. Plenty of ...


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