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69 votes
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What do the numbers on this 1960s anti-integration sign mean?

Short and "to the point" answer: Those numbers are just identifiers for various school district organization plans. The digits refer to the number of years a student spends in each "...
K.T.B.'s user avatar
  • 686
58 votes

Why did LBJ, a staunch segregationist, champion and sign the 1964 Civil Rights Bill?

"Why?" questions are particularly difficult to answer. It is not possible to stare into Johnson's soul, searching for motivation, from our vantage point more than fifty years later; instead we are ...
Pieter Geerkens's user avatar
46 votes
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Were women the property of men prior to 1919 in the UK?

No. Slavery was abolished in 1833 in England. Prior to 1919 women were not property. Not having equal rights doesn't automatically mean slavery. Neither is a woman taking the family name of her ...
Jos's user avatar
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43 votes
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Where did Asian Americans go to school during the 'separate but equal' era?

Short Answer This really depended on several factors, including state, city, time, Asian origin and even international politics. Local housing regulations also influenced the schools that Asian ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
27 votes

Were women the property of men prior to 1919 in the UK?

If you consider the wording carefully: Until women got full legal rights, [where] they could own property themselves, [and] they could work, essentially they were owned by their fathers and then by ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
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23 votes
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When did "whites only" signs (racial segregation) become illegal in the USA?

The thing is, it was never about the signs. For example, a quick perusal of this Civil Rights Chronology will show you that after the US Supreme Court ruled segregated public schools illegal, it was ...
T.E.D.'s user avatar
  • 119k
23 votes

Has Section 2 of the 14th amendment ever been enforced?

Some legal scholars argue that section 2 was essentially revoked by the 15th Amendment, only a year and a half later. Section 2 basically says, "If you insist on discriminating in voting rights, ...
T.E.D.'s user avatar
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20 votes
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Did the founding members of the Black Panthers ever mention the role of Malcolm X in creating their group?

Both of the party's founders Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton were inspired and influenced by the 'post-Nation of Islam' Malcom X. However, the Black Panther Party (BPP) largely rejected the Nation of ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
17 votes

Who said this quote about assimilation?

It may this line from E. Franklin Frazier, 1962: The Negro, according to Adams, could only be partially assimilated or, in our language, integrated but not assimilated. To which his definition of ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
  • 80.8k
16 votes

Why did LBJ, a staunch segregationist, champion and sign the 1964 Civil Rights Bill?

LBJ was a complex figure. He is described as having "uncommon ambition", easily discarding considerations such as ideology for the sake of advancing his career. As a Texas congressman and then Senator,...
congusbongus's user avatar
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15 votes
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In segregated South, would Asian-Americans be treated as "colored" or as whites?

Segregation in the South didn't make many provisions for grades colour; consequently, Asian-Americans (as well as Native Americans) occupied an uncertain place in between the two. As such, the exact ...
Semaphore's user avatar
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14 votes

Did the Bill of Rights apply to slaves?

Its very good question, since Americans in the 1850's were asking the exact some question as well! As it turns out, there was a Supreme Court ruling on the issue in 1857: The Dred Scott case. The ...
T.E.D.'s user avatar
  • 119k
14 votes

Why did LBJ, a staunch segregationist, champion and sign the 1964 Civil Rights Bill?

LBJ didn't flip. He was racist and only use the Civil Rights Act to further his power and his party's political power. LBJ said to Richard Russell, a fellow Democratic Senator from Georgia: These ...
Chloe's user avatar
  • 550
12 votes
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Has Section 2 of the 14th amendment ever been enforced?

As far as I know this has never happened. I believe that this is because it is a really tough clause to do anything with: To start with, it would typically take massive disenfranchisement (100k ...
Mark Olson's user avatar
  • 7,686
12 votes
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What was the status of Shia Muslims in the Ottoman empire?

This is very complicated for several reasons: (1) the time period is long, (2) regional / local factors and (to varying degrees) perceived external and internal threats meant changing policies, and (3)...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
12 votes
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Did Martin Luther King, Sr. change his name as an allusion to the Semitic root M-L-K?

Short Answer There doesn't seem to be any evidence for this. More likely, his visit to Berlin and sites associated with Martin Luther were factors, but there is no conclusive, documented evidence of ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
9 votes

Why did LBJ, a staunch segregationist, champion and sign the 1964 Civil Rights Bill?

Why? Because from an egocentric point of view, LBJ became aware of situations that affected him and his (extended) "family". Please allow me to relate a specific anecdote to illustrate that LBJ's ...
Benxamin's user avatar
  • 191
9 votes

Did the Bill of Rights apply to slaves?

The U.S. Constitution makes reference to the fact that it represented only "free persons." (See for instance Article 1, Section 2.) This meant that the Bill of Rights did not fully apply to slaves. ...
Tom Au's user avatar
  • 104k
8 votes
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Did the "I have a dream" speech make a big impact at the time it was spoken?

It had a huge impact. Some would even say more than it has now. Out of the ten people that spoke that day, his speech was the most memorable and the one that really sparked the passion of the people. ...
Lorem Ipsum's user avatar
8 votes
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What is the extent to which Malcolm X's activism was influenced by his Muslim beliefs?

Malcolm X's understanding of race was dramatically changed by his completion of the Hajj, the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. Here's a copy of the letter he wrote. He wrote that, "I have never before ...
Robert Columbia's user avatar
  • 3,717
8 votes

What was the most effective instrument used to disenfranchise the black population in Louisiana?

tl; dr In the short to medium term, it can only have been the literacy and comprehension tests. As explained below, the Poll Tax wasn't introduced until after the majority of black people in ...
sempaiscuba's user avatar
  • 77.3k
7 votes
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Were Rosa Parks and Freedom Riders the first ones to use a bus to protest/change?

Rosa Parks wasn't even the first woman (or second, or third, or fourth ...) to get arrested for being black and refusing to give up her seat on a bus. She wasn't even the first woman arrested in ...
T.E.D.'s user avatar
  • 119k
6 votes
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Discrimination against Catholics in Northern Ireland pre-1968

While Northern Ireland does not divide cleanly into "Catholic" and "Protestant" communities, quite a lot of the population belonged by heritage to one or the other. And you can tell them apart by ...
John Dallman's user avatar
  • 31.5k
6 votes

Why didn't the zeal of social change brought by ending slavery continue after the US civil-war ended?

It's called war fatigue. After four years of fighting a war, people want to resume their lives and not continue agitating for the social change that brought about the war. And the level of zeal of the ...
Tom Au's user avatar
  • 104k
6 votes

Southern Manifesto main idea

I think the Wikipedia page summarizes it quite well; the intent was to oppose racial integration of public spaces. Fundamentally it was a disagreement about segregation and integration. The authors ...
MCW's user avatar
  • 33.8k
6 votes

What did MLK, Jr. mean by "Mayor Loeb is in dire need of a doctor"?

Like most quotes, context is quite important. Taking a single line out of context makes understanding it more difficult. You can find multiple references to illness in the same I've Been to the ...
justCal's user avatar
  • 40.1k
5 votes
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Why didn't the zeal of social change brought by ending slavery continue after the US civil-war ended?

Yes; the US lost appetite for the advancement of civil rights due to the high cost of Reconstruction. Soon after the Civil War, in 1866 the landmark Civil Rights Act was passed, affirming the civil ...
congusbongus's user avatar
  • 14.5k
5 votes

Did the Kirk-Holden War happen?

Even in the best case, "battle" is probably a very generous description of what happened... unless you consider criminals shooting at cops rather being arrested quietly a battle. More to the point, ...
HopelessN00b's user avatar
  • 1,485

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