66

Short and "to the point" answer: Those numbers are just identifiers for various school district organization plans. The digits refer to the number of years a student spends in each "section" of a schooling system. The general notation is A-B-C, where "A" is the number of years in primary school (elementary school), "B" ...


57

"Why?" questions are particularly difficult to answer. It is not possible to stare into Johnson's soul, searching for motivation, from our vantage point more than fifty years later; instead we are left attempting to analyze his recorded acts and words, leveraging our understanding of human nature. However, I believe it is fundamental to recognize that ...


47

No. Slavery was abolished in 1833 in England. Prior to 1919 women were not property. Not having equal rights doesn't automatically mean slavery. Neither is a woman taking the family name of her husband a sign of slavery. It was (and is) a normal custom that only recently (about 40-30 years ago) changed. It actually is the default, even today, with good ...


26

Actually, a good modern analogy might be to look at how white mainstream America views the Black Lives Matter movement currently1: open hostility from social conservatives, and a lot of patronizing disagreement on methods from Liberals and Moderates. Where the analogy (probably?) breaks down is that there were a great many conservatives who flat out wanted ...


26

During the 1960s, non-violent protest was more effective than violent protest at bringing about desegregation in southern cities - especially where black protest groups had some economic leverage over the local community. We know this thanks to a recent quantitative study, which found that cities with sit-in protests were much more likely to desegregate ...


26

If you consider the wording carefully: Until women got full legal rights, [where] they could own property themselves, [and] they could work, essentially they were owned by their fathers and then by their husbands. Then in becomes clear that the person making this statement spoke just figuratively. Which is not verboten and essentially a common way to ...


25

This is probably a very debatable question, but I think I can make the argument, with good historical backing, that it was the non-violent protests that were most effective in what progress was made in the Civil Rights movement. Firstly I make this argument in deference to the leaders on the ground. A reading of Freedom Summer, by Bruce Watson* shows that ...


23

The thing is, it was never about the signs. For example, a quick perusal of this Civil Rights Chronology will show you that after the US Supreme Court ruled segregated public schools illegal, it was 3 full years before Little Rock, AR integrated theirs (and then the black schoolkids required armed protection from the US Army to get into the building). Then ...


20

Both of the party's founders Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton were inspired and influenced by the 'post-Nation of Islam' Malcom X. However, the Black Panther Party (BPP) largely rejected the Nation of Islam's (NOI) approach as they deemed it not active enough (among several other things). Nonetheless, the BPP's initial Ten Point Program bore a close ...


17

LBJ was a complex figure. He is described as having "uncommon ambition", easily discarding considerations such as ideology for the sake of advancing his career. As a Texas congressman and then Senator, his voting in favour of segregation is completely in line with the political climate of the time and place. Seizing on the nation's grief and support for ...


16

Segregation in the South didn't make many provisions for grades colour; consequently, Asian-Americans (as well as Native Americans) occupied an uncertain place in between the two. As such, the exact answer depends on the time and precise place. This uncertainty is neatly demonstrated by the testimony of Mary Tsukamoto, who had been interned in Arkansas ...


14

Its very good question, since Americans in the 1850's were asking the exact some question as well! As it turns out, there was a Supreme Court ruling on the issue in 1857: The Dred Scott case. The answer was "No". Not even free blacks were allowed protection under the Constitution. The question is simply this: Can a negro, whose ancestors were imported ...


13

LBJ didn't flip. He was racist and only use the Civil Rights Act to further his power and his party's political power. LBJ said to Richard Russell, a fellow Democratic Senator from Georgia: These Negroes, they're getting pretty uppity these days and that's a problem for us since they've got something now they never had before, the political pull to back ...


11

King made frequent reference to the book of Exodus in order to draw parallels between the ancient Israelites (enslaved in Egypt) and African-Americans (not enslaved anymore, but still not granted the full set of rights that come with being truly free). You can read entire essays on King's rhetorical use of Exodus. King used the exact phrase Egypt-land at ...


10

It was very rare. In Montgomery (which OP specifically asks about), the passengers mentioned above are the only other passengers arrested before Parks, according to History.com, this NPR story, and every other source I can find. This is further corroborated by a flyer circulated by Montgomery's Women's Political Council after Parks' arrest. According to ...


8

Why? Because from an egocentric point of view, LBJ became aware of situations that affected him and his (extended) "family". Please allow me to relate a specific anecdote to illustrate that LBJ's large ego (well-known, cited here: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1998/04/three-new-revelations-about-lbj/377094/) was insulted by this everyday ...


8

The U.S. Constitution makes reference to the fact that it represented only "free persons." (See for instance Article 1, Section 2.) This meant that the Bill of Rights did not fully apply to slaves. This idea is further elaborated on in Federalist Paper No. 54, in which slaves were considered a hybrid of persons and property. This was the idea of the Three-...


8

It had a huge impact. Some would even say more than it has now. Out of the ten people that spoke that day, his speech was the most memorable and the one that really sparked the passion of the people. Congressman John Lewis, who was the 6th speaker that day, describes MLK's words as "Streaks of lightning flying in the air." That speech and his notable role ...


8

Malcolm X's understanding of race was dramatically changed by his completion of the Hajj, the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. Here's a copy of the letter he wrote. He wrote that, "I have never before witnessed such sincere hospitality and the practice of true brotherhood as I have seen it here in Arabia. In fact all I have seen and experienced on this ...


8

tl; dr In the short to medium term, it can only have been the literacy and comprehension tests. As explained below, the Poll Tax wasn't introduced until after the majority of black people in Louisiana had been disenfranchised. In the longer term, it is impossible to say with any degree of certainty. As Michael Perman observed in his book, Struggle for ...


7

Rosa Parks wasn't even the first woman (or second, or third, or fourth ...) to get arrested for being black and refusing to give up her seat on a bus. She wasn't even the first woman arrested in Alabama for this. There was even a supreme court case over some of those previous arrests (which the NAACP ultimately won) in 1956. Fighting that particular law ...


6

It's called war fatigue. After four years of fighting a war, people want to resume their lives and not continue agitating for the social change that brought about the war. And the level of zeal of the 1960s simply can't be sustained for long, which is why it fizzled. The main exception,the French Revolution finally fizzled out when its main instigator, ...


6

While Northern Ireland does not divide cleanly into "Catholic" and "Protestant" communities, quite a lot of the population belonged by heritage to one or the other. And you can tell them apart by their accents. Northern Irish Catholics sound a lot like natives of Ireland. Northern Irish Protestants sound much more like the inhabitants of south-west ...


6

I think the Wikipedia page summarizes it quite well; the intent was to oppose racial integration of public spaces. Fundamentally it was a disagreement about segregation and integration. The authors of the Manifesto wanted to preserve a specific culture of segregation and privilege. The Supreme court required integration, which was a threat to that ...


5

Yes; the US lost appetite for the advancement of civil rights due to the high cost of Reconstruction. Soon after the Civil War, in 1866 the landmark Civil Rights Act was passed, affirming the civil rights of all US citizens. This occurred against the backdrop of sweeping wins by Republicans, many of whom were Radical Republicans who wanted to push for civil ...


5

Even in the best case, "battle" is probably a very generous description of what happened... unless you consider criminals shooting at cops rather being arrested quietly a battle. More to the point, though, none of the more scholarly or reputable sources I've found make mention of anything like a battle occurring. And even more more damning, the page ...


5

This is just to add to Pieter's excellent answer. Some executives go through a "shark to dolphin" transition as they rise. Lyndon Johnson more than most. That is, they lose some of their rough edges as they get more and more responsibility and take on larger roles. Instead, they become more "statesmanlike." That is to say that Johnson started out as a "...


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