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The African state of Mthethwa might count. It was a nation that existed from around 1775 to 1817 that predated the Zulu Kingdom and, as far as we know, had no formal writing system. The nation used military innovations such as the system of age regiments (amabutho) that would come to be utilized by the Zulu empire. While not as big as the Inca, it was around ...


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Theories about how regional climate change shaped the decline of the Indus Valley Civlization go back to at least the 1960s if not earlier. Here is a review of where the evidence stood as of 2005. The following seems to have been generally accepted by that time. Weakening of the summer monsoon led to the beginning of the arid phase in South ...


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