49

Herodotus' Histories is the primary source for the second Persian invasion of Greece, which started with the famous1 Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC. Herodotus describes the battle in Book 7 (Polymnia) of the Histories, starting at paragraph 175: The Greeks, on their return to the Isthmus, took counsel together concerning the words of Alexander, and ...


28

A slightly different translation reads as follows: The Persian bows were also large, so that such of their arrows as were taken were useful to the Cretans, and they continued using their enemies’ arrows; and they practiced shooting them upward, sending them a long way. They found a lot of gut in the villages, and lead, which they could put to use for ...


24

Certainly. In fact there was even a whole series of Sacred Wars. More specifically, the First Sacred War was fought by the Amphictyonic League against the city of Cirrha over the latter's mistreatment of religious pilgrims to Delphi. Delphi derived religious significance from its Temple of Apollo, which housed the famous Pythia - the Oracle of Delphi. The ...


15

Information on how slaves were treated in the 1,000 or so city states other than Athens is thin on the ground; for most of these city states we know next to nothing about them so comparisons between Athens and other cities are very difficult. Further, much of what we do know (even about slaves in Athens where are sources are far better than elsewhere) comes ...


12

Here's a picture of the fallen columns at Olympia: Here's one from Ephesus: Those puppies look pretty solid to me.


11

Given the lack of a clearer definition by the author, I would imagine that your interpretation of "Control of the seas in the modern sense" being "Mahanian" is probably a good starting point. From A.T. Mahan's perspective, sea power has two aspects; the protection of your interests at sea (and overseas) and your ability to interfere with ...


11

The Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC) was a testing time for the Athenian judicial system, every victory brought forth new heroes and every loss new scapegoats. The Athenians had lost their strongest asset, the leadership of Pericles, when the plague hit the city in the first year of the war, the lack of an experienced successor and the physical and mental ...


10

The Macedonian army was indeed relying on a well-established logistics organization. The following book, as already mentioned in the comments, is probably the most well-known one about the subject and quite possibly the best too. Engels, Donald W. Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Univ of California Press, 1980. According to ...


7

These were the hallmarks of the Rococo style of painting and building, that originated in central Europe around the middle of the 18th century, and found its way to Russia in the early part of the 19th century. According to Wikipedia, it featured "warm pastel colours (whitish-yellow, cream-colored, pearl greys, very light blues)." This style evolved from ...


6

I believe some of the lists - at least fragmentary ones from epigraphic sources - can be found in Fornara's volume in the "Translated Documents of Greece and Rome" series: http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/classical-studies/ancient-history/archaic-times-end-peloponnesian-war-2nd-edition


6

It is probably a statue of Antinous. (Or Hermes) In fact it is probably this one here (notice the object behind his leg): It is located in the Capitoline musuem in Rome. It is supposed to be Antinous in the shape of the Greek god Hermes. See more here. (There is a debate on whether the statue is in fact a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Hermes)


6

Sparta always was a closed society, and the exact numbers of citizens (i.e. warriors) were an absolutely secret information all the time, no doubt. After all, what do we know for sure? In the Battle of Platea there were 5000 spartiates, 5000 perioikoi, and 35000 helots. Also let's add that Plutarch in "Lycurgus" mentions 39000 shares in Laconia: 9000 ...


5

For Sparta, "great deeds" is mentioned by Xenophon (c. 431 to 354 BC) in Constitution of the Lacedaemonians where he relates this in the context of the young gaining part of their education from the experience of their elders: Note that in other states the company usually consists of men of the same age, where modesty is apt to be conspicuous by its ...


5

The study of ancient climate is called paleoclimatology. The word "climate," incidentally, comes from the Greek word, klima. There is a difference of opinion about the climate of ancient Greece. For a long time it was the common view that ancient Greece was a temperate, forested paradise with meadows, like modern France or Pennsylvania, a so-called "Arcadia"...


4

There were actually about 70 towns (by Plutarch's count) named after Alexander, but he didn't found and name all those places himself. He was the founder of the various Greek states (even if mostly by virtue of conquest), so it would be perfectly natural for the Greek ruling classes to want to pump up his reputation, including naming a lot of things after ...


4

The museum in the movie is "Galleria d'Arte di Roma", a museum that doesn't actually exist. The figure itself is a rather generic good-looking curly haired figure of renaissance Italy, and is in looks fairly similar to for example Michalengalo's David, although it's clearly not that statue, nor a copy of it. So the answer is most likely: It's not really ...


4

This is too long for a comment, but is certainly not a complete answer. However, with that caveat, Athenaeus of Naucratis certainly wrote about that practice in the Cretan commons in his Deipnosophistae. Quoting Dosiadas' 4th book on Cretan History, he says: "... After dinner they are in the habit first of deliberating on public affairs; from that ...


4

I think the answer is that, failing the discovery of a new primary source, we will never know. Considering the sheer human cost of the Plague of Athens, its footprint in ancient literature does seem somewhat shallow (although who knows which texts have been lost over the centuries). For instance, one might consider the Plague and its effects on the people ...


3

We do not have to assume that there is a substantial difference in the persons of 'one of the galloi' or 'one of the metragyrtai'. Meaning it is not a given that 'galloi did that and were this, but in contrast metragyrtai are very different in doing things'. But we can easily assume that two words describe the exact same pool of persons, only with different ...


3

Although I can see why Ricky’s answer has been downvoted, I think he is actually making one perfectly valid point. The point is that religious warfare today has the meaning of a clash between people of different religious dogmata. The “Sacred Wars” of the Greeks were nothing of the sort, as the combatants were not divided by religious belief. In the case of ...


3

I interpret that claim as alluding to galley tactics. Galleys of Antiquity and the Medieval period had severe limitations; cruising relied on wind power which was slow, and in combat they relied on many rowers. Thus any naval action required lots of men, food and water. They could not blockade, in the modern sense, of cutting off all sea trade and ...


2

Simply; no. In war one must do a multitude of things well to win: logistics, command, morale, training, and battle tactics just for a start. Getting any one of these things seriously wrong is sufficient to ensure likely defeat. That Alexander was able to string together victory after victory virtually guarantees that he was performing all of these skills ...


2

I have read that they used lead pins to hold the sections together. The lead is no longer there because it was scavenged during modern times. Much of this took place during the Turkish occupation of Greece. The Turks took the lead to make bullets. Not sure if this is 100% accurate, I can't remember where I read this but I do remember reading or hearing ...


2

There are certainly scholars who have tried to quantify economic growth and income disparities over the long term, most notably Paul Bairoch and, especially, Angus Maddison. I don't have their books at hand and do not know whether their data goes as far back in the past or if they looked at this specific comparison but as I recall the main finding is that ...


1

No. What IS true is that there were greater extremes of wealth and poverty in the Persian empire. The Greeks were "wealthy" for their time. It's true that their rocky soil was not particularly good for growing food. But the special qualities of the soil made it good for growing two other key crops, grapes for wine and olives for oil. These were high value ...


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