Episode #125 of the Stack Overflow podcast is here. We talk Tilde Club and mechanical keyboards. Listen now
49

Herodotus' Histories is the primary source for the second Persian invasion of Greece, which started with the famous1 Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC. Herodotus describes the battle in Book 7 (Polymnia) of the Histories, starting at paragraph 175: The Greeks, on their return to the Isthmus, took counsel together concerning the words of Alexander, and ...


28

A slightly different translation reads as follows: The Persian bows were also large, so that such of their arrows as were taken were useful to the Cretans, and they continued using their enemies’ arrows; and they practiced shooting them upward, sending them a long way. They found a lot of gut in the villages, and lead, which they could put to use for ...


20

Certainly. In fact there was even a whole series of Sacred Wars. More specifically, the First Sacred War was fought by the Amphictyonic League against the city of Cirrha over the latter's mistreatment of religious pilgrims to Delphi. Delphi derived religious significance from its Temple of Apollo, which housed the famous Pythia - the Oracle of Delphi. The ...


14

Information on how slaves were treated in the 1,000 or so city states other than Athens is thin on the ground; for most of these city states we know next to nothing about them so comparisons between Athens and other cities are very difficult. Further, much of what we do know (even about slaves in Athens where are sources are far better than elsewhere) comes ...


11

Given the lack of a clearer definition by the author, I would imagine that your interpretation of "Control of the seas in the modern sense" being "Mahanian" is probably a good starting point. From A.T. Mahan's perspective, sea power has two aspects; the protection of your interests at sea (and overseas) and your ability to interfere with your enemy's ...


10

The Macedonian army was indeed relying on a well-established logistics organization. The following book, as already mentioned in the comments, is probably the most well-known one about the subject and quite possibly the best too. Engels, Donald W. Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Univ of California Press, 1980. According to ...


9

The Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC) was a testing time for the Athenian judicial system, every victory brought forth new heroes and every loss new scapegoats. The Athenians had lost their strongest asset, the leadership of Pericles, when the plague hit the city in the first year of the war, the lack of an experienced successor and the physical and mental ...


8

Plato in the Timaeus attempts to give plausibility to the story by attributing it to Critias, who heard it from his grandfather Critias, who heard it from the legislator Solon, who heard it from an aged Egyptian priest during his travels. Benjamin Jowett's notes on Timaeus comment thus: Did Plato derive the legend of Atlantis from an Egyptian source? It ...


7

Here's a picture of the fallen columns at Olympia: Here's one from Ephesus: Those puppies look pretty solid to me.


6

Sparta always was a closed society, and the exact numbers of citizens (i.e. warriors) were an absolutely secret information all the time, no doubt. After all, what do we know for sure? In the Battle of Platea there were 5000 spartiates, 5000 perioikoi, and 35000 helots. Also let's add that Plutarch in "Lycurgus" mentions 39000 shares in Laconia: 9000 ...


6

I believe some of the lists - at least fragmentary ones from epigraphic sources - can be found in Fornara's volume in the "Translated Documents of Greece and Rome" series: http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/classical-studies/ancient-history/archaic-times-end-peloponnesian-war-2nd-edition


6

It is probably a statue of Antinous. (Or Hermes) In fact it is probably this one here (notice the object behind his leg): It is located in the Capitoline musuem in Rome. It is supposed to be Antinous in the shape of the Greek god Hermes. See more here. (There is a debate on whether the statue is in fact a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Hermes)


5

The study of ancient climate is called paleoclimatology. The word "climate," incidentally, comes from the Greek word, klima. There is a difference of opinion about the climate of ancient Greece. For a long time it was the common view that ancient Greece was a temperate, forested paradise with meadows, like modern France or Pennsylvania, a so-called "Arcadia"...


5

For Sparta, "great deeds" is mentioned by Xenophon (c. 431 to 354 BC) in Constitution of the Lacedaemonians where he relates this in the context of the young gaining part of their education from the experience of their elders: Note that in other states the company usually consists of men of the same age, where modesty is apt to be conspicuous by its ...


4

This is too long for a comment, but is certainly not a complete answer. However, with that caveat, Athenaeus of Naucratis certainly wrote about that practice in the Cretan commons in his Deipnosophistae. Quoting Dosiadas' 4th book on Cretan History, he says: "... After dinner they are in the habit first of deliberating on public affairs; from that ...


4

The museum in the movie is "Galleria d'Arte di Roma", a museum that doesn't actually exist. The figure itself is a rather generic good-looking curly haired figure of renaissance Italy, and is in looks fairly similar to for example Michalengalo's David, although it's clearly not that statue, nor a copy of it. So the answer is most likely: It's not really ...


4

There were actually about 70 towns (by Plutarch's count) named after Alexander, but he didn't found and name all those places himself. He was the founder of the various Greek states (even if mostly by virtue of conquest), so it would be perfectly natural for the Greek ruling classes to want to pump up his reputation, including naming a lot of things after ...


3

I interpret that claim as alluding to galley tactics. Galleys of Antiquity and the Medieval period had severe limitations; cruising relied on wind power which was slow, and in combat they relied on many rowers. Thus any naval action required lots of men, food and water. They could not blockade, in the modern sense, of cutting off all sea trade and ...


2

Simply; no. In war one must do a multitude of things well to win: logistics, command, morale, training, and battle tactics just for a start. Getting any one of these things seriously wrong is sufficient to ensure likely defeat. That Alexander was able to string together victory after victory virtually guarantees that he was performing all of these skills ...


2

While you phrased your question as "how did he know" I think your actual question is whether or not this happened, because there is no way to know where Plato got this information from, though I would assume it was verbal or some manuscript that is long since gone. Now in regards to whether or not this is true, I doubt it due to the fact that Athens is ...


1

Yes, they did. Cumea for example, was a popular resort for the rich and famous. They fled the summer heat (and the malaria) of Rome to the beach. I don't have any references, but some (very) rich Romans had heated seawater swimming pools constructed on their properties. Going to the beach is not exactly what we do today. Going back a wee bit in time: my ...


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