53

You're describing the mian (冕), a style of classical Chinese head dress that was indeed worn by successive Emperors of China. The basic design consisted of a hat secured to the head with a red string (纓), topped by a rectangular board (綖), with threads of gems (旒) attached to its front and back edges, and two "ear plugs" (充耳) hanging off the two sides. ...


46

Yes, they did. Not all, but a very many, especially the more veteran soldiers. I don't have time to get sources together, but will when I do. Reasons were varied. Some believed that being close to over-pressure events (artillery, etc) could cause a head injury with the large helmet being force up and the tough leather strap breaking the neck. This was ...


38

They were not supermen by any means :) But yes, temperatures were higher, by more than 1 degree (Kent and Wales were famous for their wines, right now it's far too cold there for that for example). And don't forget that in the Roman era, wars were fought in summer almost exclusively, later expanding into spring and autumn as the conscript army was replaced ...


34

If you get rich in a business you soon find that you have no reasonable 'line of work' for your money, or in other word: capital. So you get essentially too rich for meaningful expansion in your core business. And now you can start either to waste it around for personal luxuries or other consumption — or you throw your money around as an 'investor' or money ...


32

Technically, it's not a flag it's a surcoat. It represents the coats of arms of her family. In heraldic terms, the display of these arms are known as impalement. In this case, the arms on the dexter side (her right) represent the arms of her husband, Edward II (the coat of arms of England) and on the sinister side (her left) those of her family (the coat of ...


31

The commonest form of underwear was the subligaculum, a basic loincloth worn by men and women. Most people wore the subligaculum under other garments. For example, men wore the garment under the tunica (shirt) or the toga, and women wore it under the stola, a long gown. But others wore the subligaculum alone. Common workers often labored wearing ...


30

We have essentially three references on this topic. Of these, only Caesar's could have had political motivations, as he was engaged in a campaign against the Britons. His account, however, is only marginal compared to the others, in that he does not clearly state that the Celts went to battle naked. On the other hand, both Polybius and Diodourus Siculus look ...


29

Yes, many did. An image search reveals plenty of examples. Although I've found few with the straps hanging, most have the straps secured tightly behind the helmet. BAR Gunner, 1st Marine Division, Wana Ridge, Okinawa 1945 Three reasons are cited (and one which is my own speculation). In close combat, an enemy can grab the visor. The idea here is an enemy ...


29

The Romans, and indeed the classical world in general, would've usually swam in the nude. See for instance the following depictions of naked divers, though they are not precisely Roman. Frescoes from the Etruscan Tomb of Hunting and Fishing in Central Italy. Source: The Database of Ancient Art Fresco from the Greek Tomb of the Diver in Southern Italy. ...


25

The basic form of this garment is like the gugel, a hood that protects the head and also covers the shoulders. The precursors for these are Roman paenula or Alpine Kotze made from various types of wool. It is not exclusive to medieval times, although this basic style became quite fashionable for a while during the later middle ages, first in the lower ...


23

Leather was probably the most common material. The most basic transportation technology of the medieval era was the foot ... Those who did not go barefoot ... wore simple shoes. These shoes were made from leather, including the flat sole. - Wigelsworth, Jeffrey R. Science and Technology in Medieval European Life. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. ...


23

tl;dr muklālu isn't actually an Egyptian word. It is a transliteration from the Akkadian cuneiform. A muklālu was an item of clothing worn by the Hittite rulers. It was probably a shawl, cape, or hood, and we have sources stating that it could be either red or blue. The coloured-linen 'Maklalu-material' mentioned in the passage was simply the material ...


20

Wigs became almost instantly fashionable after Louis XIII started wearing one in 1624 to hide his baldness, and were almost universal for European upper & middle class men by the beginning of the 18th century. Their main purpose was to mask receding or graying hair, and as a fashion item. One excellent source is the very detailed diary of Samuel Pepys (...


17

One kind of shoe not mentioned in the other answers are those using bast soles. "Bast" is fiber from tree bark. Bast shoes or lapti, were once worn by poorer members of Northern European cultures. These were usually made from birch or linden. They are woven like a basket, and so are quite distinct from the wooden clog or hard wooden-soled shoes mentioned in ...


17

This is required by US Army regulations. See Army Regulation 670–1 "Uniform and Insignia - Wear and Appearance of Army Uniforms and Insignia" PDF, p. 35: 21–18. Wear of U.S. flag embroidered insignia a. All Soldiers will wear the full-color U.S. flag embroidered insignia on utility and organizational uniforms, unless deployed or in a field environment....


15

Diapers back then were not made of synthetic materials, and thus were not really a "consumer good". The first consumer disposable diaper did not come along until 1948 (right after the war). Instead, they were made of cloth, and were washed between uses. People of middle-class or better means typically had a service for this purpose. Much like a milk service,...


15

Switzerland, and the Germanies, 1500s and 1600s in the form of the Landsknecht who were given a legal dispensation from the sumptuary (clothing) laws to be so fabulous. There is a contemporary recreation community who have some colour pictures of recreated clothes draped on people, and a wide variety of pictures online, including some colour prints from ...


14

From this website http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/clothing-ii , in a section concerning historical clothing it goes into length on several styles of headgear. This style falls under the designation 'tiara'. In any event, the tiara had a top like a hood, often lined inside with luxurious animal fur. Ordinarily it was worn flat, either pressed down ...


13

The imperial regalia of Rome were not a single thing but a collection of various objects carried in tow during processions of the emperor. The main items were various lances and spears along with a standard, which was an embroidered banner surmounted by a gold eagle. The emperor also carried a scepter. The regalia of the Byzantines were all probably lost if ...


12

http://www.romanarmy.net/coldweather.htm Seems to address cold weather clothing very well. It seems they did what we did, scarfs, multiple layers, hats, enclosed boots etc but with the exception of trousers, which they saw as barbarian. They went for lower leg coverings instead. I would point out these guys seem to manage without trousers. Except actually ...


12

As always, the uniform would differ from one school to another school. But in the Showa period (1920s-1985) school uniforms is highly characterized by a strong influence from the military - especially the navy. Japan had been in rigorous military transformation since the start of Meiji period (1868), and it is reflected in the education system it produced - ...


12

In the case of Albert Ball, he was simply wearing his side or field cap in the manner that was usual in many armies of the time. See also the Glengarry. In the British Army, the first cap to be adopted of this style was the "Glengarry", which was authorised for all British infantry regiments in 1868...An all-khaki version [of the cap] was also selected in ...


12

The hood and the 'distinctive castellated margin' mentioned by the OP are really two seperate features, so this answer will focus on the decorative hem, which was called Dagging. A very informative and well sourced article on Fashion History Timeline. The main definition being: Dagging (also “daggings”, “dagges”; adjective: “dagged”) is a decorative element ...


11

Actually, for a brief span of seven years there was such an army (or, strictly speaking, a corps) - the Palmach, founded in 1941. Its officers wore no special insignia (and in fact, there were no ranks in the usual sense, only command-titles such as "platoon commander"), got the same pay as the privates - and ate together with them. This all makes a lot of ...


11

The first thing to note is that fashions changed rapidly in ancient times, just like they do today and one "Phoenician" might be wearing something completely different than another one. Also, a foreigner who was doing business in Rome normally would dress just like the Romans. Wearing foreign garb in Augustan Rome would not be a recipe for success. Also, ...


10

My father fought on the German side on the Western Front in the First World War, as a very young man. I remember him telling me that the great advantage of high boots without laces was exactly that they could easily be taken off and put on quickly, unlike the low laced boots and puttees worn by British soldiers. He said as a result that "trench foot" was ...


10

As far as I call tell, unless the spiritual electors wore their clerical vestaments, and they do not in those images, their elector's robes and those of the secular electors should have been the same color with only minor differences in the precise shade. I believe that the Golden Bull of 1356 specified the color of the elector's robes. The other princes ...


9

Since this during a morning levée I assume it's a negligé cap. The purpose of this is to cover the head (which was typically shaved) when you did not have a wig.


9

Wikipedia to the rescue: This article on caligae (military boots) states that Socks were not normally worn with caligae, although in colder climates such as Britain, woolen socks were used. This one on Roman military personal equipment mentions that [The sagum and the paenula] were made from wool, which insulated and also contained natural oil to ...


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