74

Short answer George Washington relied on the translation of a mercenary he knew well and who had previously acted as his translator, Jacob Van Braam, and did not think he was signing a document in which (the French later claimed) he admitted assassinating a French military officer. Further, the claim that the officer killed had been on a diplomatic mission, ...


17

Transported convicts weren't imprisoned in the North American colonies. Much like the convicts transported to Australia after the loss of Britain's American colonies they were set to work. American colonists bought their labour when they arrived in America, and the convicts lived with their new owner - effectively as slaves, although people often used the ...


7

The Spanish and Portuguese noticed early in the 16th century that the native peoples of the Caribbean and South and Central America were sickly to the point of being unsuitable (in general) for slave labour. From this the First Atlantic System develops into South and Central America: Regarding the Atlantic slave trade [The First Atlantic System] started (...


7

I finally tracked down what seems to be a copy of the letter that I think you are referring to on Find a Grave. The extract of the relevant section is here: (Click to enlarge) The text reads: A testimony concerning that Faithful Servant of the Lord, & my Dear Friend and Kinsman Cuthbert Hayhurst, who was born at Easington in Bolland in the County ...


6

The question seems to assume the existence of immigration controls, which are a fairly modern invention. The first US law restricting (voluntary) immigration in any significant way wasn't passed until 1875*. Prior to that, the general process in the Americas was to control naturalization (citizenship), but not immigration. Of course anyone wanting to live ...


4

Question: Why did a young George Washington sign a document admitting to assassinating a French military officer? Because he really had no choice. Fort Necessity was a hastily assembled wooden structure placed in the middle of a meadow. Unfortunately Necessity was built within rifle range of the nearby woods so the French could remain in relative safety ...


4

To add to Aaron's answer: The first retail store keeper in Monterey was probably Don David Spence, born 24 October 1798 in the parish of Huntly, Scotland to David Spence and his wife Helen Stewart: (registration required to access this birth record. Due to copyright restrictions I am unable to post the image) Scotlands People He died 18 February 1875 in ...


4

No, the Governor of Virginia had no power of veto in 1786. The Commonwealth of Virginia adopted its first Constitution on 29 June 1776. This was superseded by the second constitution in 1830. The First Constitution is therefore the one that would have applied in 1786. That Constitution did not give the Governor any power of veto. It states simply that: ...


3

I'm not a historian and have no expertise on California, but overall it seems that neither of these regimes would have had much capacity to impose taxes in Alta California. In theory, according to a Wikipedia article, there were import tarriffs and a tithe or land tax called the diezmo: Since the government depended on import tariffs (also called Custom ...


3

I discovered this answer in the course of asking the question, because I did make a lot of attempts to seek answers as I wrote and reworded each paragraph. I finally remembered to try Wikipedia in other languages. No luck in Spanish and Portuguese, and French didn't exist, but the Dutch version struck gold. The table is long and detailed so I'll just use a ...


2

Question: Was the Somerset Decision in 1772 in England the real underlying cause of the American Revolutionary war? He said the real reason for the revolutionary war was not for freedom but on the contrary for preserving slavery. He said one of the first articles in the US Constitution was to protect slavery. Short Answer I can find no ...


2

According to James R. Gibson's article Russian Dependence upon the Natives of Alaska, the Tlingit "retained their culture longer than the islanders" (Aluutiq and Koniags), in part because of their large population and their "cohesive" phratric identities. Tlingit were able to charge the Russians three to five times more than the other tribes for pelts. They ...


2

The first two images below are samples from a book which appears to be a record of payments in kind made to soldiers in the San Francisco Presidio in 1817, which perhaps confirms the suggestion in the question that they were unpaid during the war. The document in the following images appears to show the payments made to the officers and men in the San ...


2

I think this question is entirely answered by Wikipedia The Frame of 1701 remained the governing constitutional document in Pennsylvania in the following seventy-five years until the Revolution of 1776. Wikipedia Given that the source of authority for the Frame of 1701 was the crown, (see below), in 1776, created a new governing document. WHEREAS ...


1

As a ballpark number, the Mayflower took about 2 months to do a similar kind of trip a few decades earlier. By the end of the 17th century the trip would have been a bit faster (about 6 weeks) due to a better understanding of the prevailing winds and currents in the Atlantic. Aside: there are a few other travel related questions on this site that you might ...


1

Question: How did American colonial rights and conditions compare to those within the British Isles? Did most American colonists have it better or worse than most British (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland) before the revolution in the 1750s? Short Answer Better in some ways. The colonials in the 1750's were able to ...


1

"The US" doesn't really exist. What has existed are a bunch of people who made various compacts about how things should work. As such, "the US" didn't set out to be anything. A bunch of people had some ideas, often at odds with each other, and reached various compromises to create compacts around an idea called "the United States". Then they died, and ...


1

Your thesis is borne out by some "American" history, but a better source of instruction is post colonial, rather than "Native American" history. South America is divided east and west, roughly 50-50 in terms of land area and population, between Spanish and Portuguese speaking areas. The Treaty of Tordesilles awarded "Brazil" to Portugal and the rest of ...


1

Did a google map thing and followed the coastline as close as possible, came out to 700 miles give or take. That is 608.something nautical miles, so call that 600 for easy math. More googling shows a few papers citing 4.something knots as the average speed of the average ship of the time. At a speed of 4 knots (4 nm/hr) call it 100nm per 24 hr period. So ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible