81

A 1928 booklet on HOW TO WRITE TELEGRAMS PROPERLY has this to say concerning the use of STOP (emphasis mine): If it seems impossible to convey your meaning clearly without the use of punctuation, use may be made of the celebrated word "stop," which is known the world over as the official telegraphic or cable word for "period." This word "stop" ...


71

During that period, both Churchill and Roosevelt were old men more used to hand written letters than "high technology" teletype writers. Teletype writers are NOISY! Using teletype writers can be a slow process & thus make a l-o-n-g conversation. Telephones, despite sophisticated encryption technology, are immediate and more intimate. In ...


66

Because telegraph was a manually routed transmission. Like the original Ethernet of the 1980's, one had long cable runs with stations tapping the cable along its length. Transmission to another station on the same cable run was single hop, but to a station on another cable run would be multi-hop. Unlike Ethernet however, with it's automatic repeaters, ...


35

The French Postal Service started operation in the fifteenth century and by 1632 - 150 years before your inquiry - there was already a network of over 623 coaching inns operated by it across the length and breadth of France - typically about seven miles apart. These coaching inns provided refreshment, accommodation and fresh teams for all travelers, not just ...


27

Chapter 16 - TELEGRAPH AT WAR 1854 - 1868 of Distant Writing by Steven Roberts outlines several battlefield usages of the telegraph prior to the American Civil War. The British, French and Spanish all employed telegraphs systems on the battlefield prior to the start of the American Civil War. British The Crimean War is the first time that the telegraph was ...


27

The first book google hit for "cablegram price" is The Bolsheviks: Twilight of the Romanov Dynasty by John D. Loscher which contains a discussion of the prices and comparison to today's money. If I understand it correctly, it is one shilling a word and "five letters in conjunction counted as one word". One shilling (1/20 of pound sterling) was $3.11 of "...


20

It is a strange way, of course to measure the SIZE of an empire in terms of the TIME of travel from end to end; at different times different means of transportation were available, and it also depended on the season. But if one accepts this strange criterion, perhaps the Russian empire in the early 19th century is hard to beat: it stretched from Alaska and ...


19

The communications between national leaders are normally conducted through the embassies. I.e., Churchill would send a Typex-encrypted telegram to the British Embassy in Washington, DC, it is decrypted there, and delivered in person to the White House. Similarly, Roosevelt would send a SIGABA-encrypted message to the US Embassy in London, it is decrypted ...


16

Territory Governor Riley, who had summoned the constitutional convention, had 1,000 English and 250 Spanish copied printed "post-haste" and distributed around the state. In addition, many of the convention delegates themselves stood for the election just 4 weeks later, by their campaigning further promulgating news and description of the pending ...


15

It seems to me that there are a number of variables to this, many of which would vary from beacon to beacon, so getting an 'accurate' transmission time for the information is going to be almost impossible. We know that the Spanish fleet were sighted by Captain Thomas Flemyng near the Lizard on the 19th July 1588 (State Papers relating to the Defeat of the ...


14

Yes, it was possible to send a telegraph message from Moscow or St Petersburg to Tomsk in 1875. Tomsk was connected in 1863, Irkutsk in 1864 and Omsk in or before 1866. "Map Showing the Telegraph Lines In Operation, Under Contract, and Contemplated to Complete the Circuit of the Globe, 1869". Source: HH Lloyd & Co Publishers [Public domain], via ...


14

For a print work I recommend Francis L. Loewenheim, Harold D. Langley, & Manfred Jonas, Editors; Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence, Dutton, 1975. Contains some 600 or so of the more than 1700 cable messages which passed between Roosevelt and Churchill from shortly after the start of the war in 1939 until April 1945. Or if you ...


13

SHORT ANSWER The earliest TV program broadcast which can be proven as not being experimental is Charles Francis Jenkins' revolving windmill segment broadcast on the 2nd of July, 1928, but there may have been others before this. While The Queen's Messenger, broadcast in the US on the 11th of September 1928, can probably claim to be the first TV drama, it ...


13

An incident leading to the First Opium War comes to mind. The setting is China in the late 1700s. European traders want free trade with China, but China has restricted them to a single port: Canton. Long story short, the British wanted Chinese tea, lots and lots of tea! This meant a lot of British hard currency was going to China in exchange for their tea. ...


13

Unknown. For first numbering of pages in book or codex form. Around 1470-1499 for printed books made with numbers on pages. The system was known since antiquity, as there we have some fragments that show page numbers. Running pagination may have been invented as early as the codex form itself. Foliation and pagination have probably both been known since the ...


12

In terms of the area of control established by communications, unquestionably the British Empire - with telegraph connections to Australia established in 1871, Britain had enormous swaths of the globe - from Tikitiki on the North Island of New Zealand all the way west to Beaver Creek in the Yukon, with stops for the Indian subcontinent and an enormous chunk ...


12

It was published at least twice in the newspaper Alta California, on November 1 and November 8. It may have appeared in other newspapers as well, but this was what I was able to find with a quick search.


11

For the most part, the telephone was a welcome invention that, aside from its practical applications for business, helped to alleviate the loneliness of rural existence. It was adopted fairly quickly, reaching 40% of American households before the Depression hit, slowing and even reversing its use (22). Continued adoption would wait until the 1940s. Despite ...


11

I think it's safe to conclude that no fighter plane radios were encrypted, due to requiring extremely bulky equipment at the time. Communication between enemy fighters was theoretically possible, since all you need to do is tune in to the enemy's frequency, but most planes could only use a very limited set of preset frequencies. Of course this does mean ...


11

The Roman Empire had the cursus publicus, which maintained an infrastructure of horses and way stations. The messenger himself was supplied by the one sending the message. It was used for transporting messages, magistrates, and some heavy goods too. Important messages typically travelled at roughly 50 miles per day.


11

Because European naval tradition freely allows ruses of war (such as false flag ruses) that would shock a commander of land-based forces, and even be treated as war crimes if perpetrated by land forces, a navel commander can only accept proof of a peace agreement that has been conveyed through his own chain of command. However the commanders of both sides, ...


11

No idea if the story occurred exactly as described, but FWIW it is plausible. Louis XVI sought to flee his plight during the French Revolution a few years later. A number of things went wrong after he left with his family during the night: he opted for a slow, heavy coach instead of the two light ones that had been recommended to him so the family wouldn't ...


11

Post stages existed in France (and elsewhere in Europe) before the Revolution where horses would be exchanged along the route The Wikipedia article Stage station deals more about the 19th century than the 18th century, but otherwise gives a good overview on how the system worked. It also explains the Origin of the name posting: Medieval couriers were ...


10

There were a variety of systems in use for onboard communication on military ships during the Second World War. Different systems were used by different navies, and not all systems would be available on all vessels. On vessels in the US Navy, the shipboard general announcing system is known as the 1 Main Circuit or simply '1MC'. This was certainly in use ...


10

Absolutely - and dedicated point-to-point wiring remained state-of-the-art technology for telephony right into the 1960's, as in the 1960 photograph below of a telephone exchange switchboard: As the number of subscribers increased, however, these exchanges became more numerous and more disbursed through the cities, though the dedicated lines from each ...


9

I think that the short answer to your question is: No. The Empire survived very well for about 400 years (let's say from the death of Augustus in 14 CE to circa 400 when the so-called migration of the peoples began to be felt in the Empire) with the same communications structure. Ancient states required much less centralized decision making than modern ...


8

It took about two weeks. By 1890 postal unions had been formed allowing mail to transit around the world to most places. The domestic rate in the US was 2¢ per ounce. For a first class letter weighing 1/2 ounce or less to Britain the union cost would be an additional 5¢. Thus, the total cost was 7¢ for a first class letter. Here are the rates from 1890, ...


8

To get all the way to India would take several steps. At the turn of the century there were three cables from Aden to Bombay. So, if you needed to wire Madras from London, the message would first have to be sent to Aden, then to Bombay, then on to Madras. In general, most of the long line pre-WW2 cables were single conductor only (one channel). Here is a ...


8

First off, the idea that the First Jewish-Roman war was futile is wrong. The war lasted several years, the Roman armies were defeated a few times. The main reason for failure was Jewish infighting and therefore a lack of cohesion between Jews themselves. "Professional armies" are not magically better than volunteer armies, or even conscript armies, as proven ...


7

Encryption can very well be done on quite small portable devices, also during WWII. The famous German Enigma machine was about as large as a type-writer, and that was one of the most advanced and complex encryption of the time. Smaller machines with simpler encryption also existed. However, encrypted communications required a separate radio person who does ...


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