124

Moldova The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova came to power in the 2001 Moldovan parliamentary election but went into opposition after the July 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election despite being by far the largest single party. Although the Soviet-era Communist Party of Moldova was banned in 1991, the Party of Communists of the Republic of ...


75

I believe the Velvet revolution in Czechoslovakia matches your criteria. It started with popular protests in November 1989. During December, the (Communist) president nominated a new government where the Communist party held 10 out of 21 seats. Then in June 1990, free elections were held and the Communist party was voted out of power, no longer being part of ...


61

If you consider it sovereign, East Germany did that. Well, they had already lost almost all control anyways, but after the wall fell they simply ran for the first election with other parties, and - obviously - lost. So you could say that they were knowingly giving up all their power in the form of an election, but it was an election nonetheless.


39

1932 There are two chief interpretations of the 1932 Soviet famine, or especially the more infamous Ukrainian component, the Holodomor. That the famine was at least partially caused or exacerbated by Soviet policies is well established. The main difference between the schools of thought is the degree to which Soviet authorities perpetuated or even ...


38

In the Republic of San Marino, an elected Communist-Socialist coalition government ruled from 1983 to 1988. They lost their majority when the Socialists scored badly in the 1988 elections, and the government was peacefully replaced by an improbable alliance including communists and christians-democrats. After 1992's elections, communists left the ...


35

A Russian revolution caused by the Bolsheviks was most definitely the goal of the Germans when they allowed Lenin to pass through their lands. Germany wished to undermine, or end, the Russian war effort and sending Lenin back was done for that purpose. If true, who came up with the idea and was there any consideration that a communist Russia could ...


35

Under an older system of transliteration, the Russians transliterated 김일성 (Kim Il-Sung) as Ким Ир Сен (Kim Irsen), which is still the standard way of rendering his name in Russian. Under the currently standard Kontsevich system, it would instead be transliterated as Ким Ильсо́н (Kim Ilson). It seems that those countries that were closer to Russia ...


32

The Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) won elections in 2008, and subsequently lost power to the Nepali Congress in the 2013 elections. The Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) has led four governments in Nepal, the last one losing power to the Nepali Congress in 2016. The two communist parties merged in 2018, forming the Nepal ...


26

The USSR growth rate during the 50's was not exceptionally high. The claims of more than 10% growth, although certainly theoretically possible, were simply not true, but Soviet propaganda. Real growth rates during the 50's and 60's were rather 4-7% depending on time period and who is doing the estimation. This can be compared to average OECD and average ...


26

I think the election to the upper chamber of Polish parliament (Senat) in 1989 can be considered such case. According to the agreements of the Round Table (Okrągły Stół) the lower chamber (Sejm) had an established number of seats (65%) pre-assigned for the governing communist party (PZPR) and their satellites and the remaining MPs were selected in an ...


23

"The most significant fact is that it will not fall from inside pressure. Only outside, foreign, hostile intervention can destroy it." In fact, some historians have argued the exact opposite: the Soviet Union only lasted as long as it did because the Kremlin held up a foreign enemy to distract from internal pressures. Without a boogeyman to act as a ...


21

It is clear that Stalin supported the creation of Israel. From the Wiki: For Soviet foreign policy decision-makers, pragmatism took precedence over ideology. Without changing its official anti-Zionist stance, from late 1944, until 1948 and even later, Joseph Stalin adopted a pro-Zionist foreign policy, apparently believing that the new country would be ...


20

Marxist Theory Marxism, as taught and practiced in the USSR, claims that human society consists of base: economic structure (ownership of means of production, relationships between the owners and workers, technology envolved &c) superstructure: "culture" (politics, laws, rituals &c) and the base determines the nature of the superstructure. ...


19

The Korean language has a different set of phonemes compared to most Indo-European languages. Phonemes are individual sounds that are distinguished in pronunciation and used to differentiate words. For example, in English the words lot and rot are perceived as different because of the way the first letter (l versus r, typically denoted /l/ versus /r/) is ...


18

Answers to your questions: Were most of [the super-wealthy Russians] able to flee the country? No. Most of them were executed by the Bolsheviks along with their families and anybody that the Bolsheviks deemed to be in league with them. You can get a sense for the survival chances by reading about the last Grand Dukes of Russia. Remember that these are the ...


18

Austria in 1945 had, like most of Eastern Europe, a provisional government which was approved by Stalin and had a large Communist contingent. Unlike other countries, however, the Austrian Communists did not freeze out and later ban all other parties; instead truly free elections were held, which resulted in the Communist Party ceasing to be a part of the ...


17

I'll just try to put some further tidbits into the three questions. "Lenins Rückkehr nach Russland 1917: Die deutschen Akten" has from Page 39 on a telegram conversation between the German ambassador in Bern von Romberg and the Auswärtige Amt (Foreign Bureau). It starts with von Romberg 7th September 1914: Russian, who seems to have contact with russian ...


17

The Cuban intervention in Angola was entirely in keeping with the regime's outlook since the revolution. C. Sobers, in Investigating Cuban Internationalism: the First Angolan Intervention, 1975, observes that The Angolan intervention culminated a decade of interest in African affairs, and was a prime example of Cuban internationalism. Cuban ...


13

It was illegal to set up business by person or group during that time. The first license to individual business after cultural revolution was issued in 1980. Even in late 70s and early 80s (after the cultural revolution), trading goods by individual was still a crime called 投机倒把罪,meaning "crime of Speculation and profiteering". People relied on a nation-wide ...


13

One reason was that the Prague Spring leaders paid "lip service" to Communism and Soviet rule throughout. In essence, they weren't (officially) trying to overthrow the Soviet regime so much as they were trying to "modify" it. This had some acquiescence of the Soviet Union, who was trying a modest series of reforms (post Khrushchev), until things "got out of ...


13

I understand that by "bolshevik" we're really just referring to the majority party within the USSR (if that is correct?) This is the original, most concrete definition of "Bolshevik", yes. Outside of Russia however, the term quickly became a more generic appellation for left-wing revolutionaries, Russia sympathizers and so. In contemporary usage the ...


13

I cannot certify that the precise wording is accurate, but the sentiment most certainly is. This essay on the relationship of Marx and Engels with the 19th Century Russian revolutionaries notes this statement by Engels (my emphasis): Consequently, the existence of the bourgeoisie is from this point of view also as necessary a condition for the Socialist ...


12

As you have correctly implied, you can NOT equate these terms. Among other reasons, because the first couple are economic systems and the latter are political. There are certain correllations and causations betwene them, however. Just as a note, your question is nearly impossible to answer for 4 reasons: You don't actually define what democracy or ...


12

I think Stalin is quite popular in Russia. It would be quite surprising if Stalin was not that popular. The popularity of Stalin today may be even greater than it was in 1970s and 1980s. There are multiple reasons. First of all, Stalin is credited for winning the Great Patriotic War, the most bloody war in human history and the history of Russia. Many ...


12

I trust David Remnick's Lenins's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire as a source, which includes this passage: To begin with, Gorbachev himself was still convinced of what he called the "rightness of socialist choice." He continued to see Lenin as his guiding intellectual and historical model. There is absolutely no evidence to suggest that ...


12

Most people who are or want to be political leaders try to look like they love children, and children love them. The reason is very simple: Most adult people are parents. For almost all parents there is nothing more important in the world than their children. Hence, the best way to rise in the eyes of parents, and hence the best way to rise in the eyes of ...


12

To add to the Lennart's answer, capital investment affects economic growth the most when the current capital level is low (see, e.g., Mankiw, "Macroeconomics", chapter 4, appendix). This is why all economies experience spectacular rates of growth during early stages of industrialization. USSR was devastated by WW2, so its capital investment paid handsomely - ...


12

In Europe and especially in France the events of the Paris Commune and the use of the red flag there set for good the red flag as the symbol of the socialist revolution and not "just" the revolution. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Commune


12

The problem is the definition. Great Purge as itself wasn't a single event under Stalin's rule but waves of executions and convictions. In fact after Lenin's death in 1922 Stalin came to power. With increasing intensity he started to deal with rivals, first politically, then he had enough power to order uncontrolled massacre. The most famous period is the ...


12

The Sandinista National Liberation Front (SNLF) or Sandinistas in Nicaragua. They came to power when they overthrew Anastasio Somoza DeBayle in 1979 and then ruled Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990. Then lost the Presidency in an election to Violeta Barrios de Chamorro in 1990. The SNLF's President Daniel Ortega returned to power in 2006 through the electoral ...


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