84

Japanese AC power outlets were first standardised in 1926 with the publication of the "挿込型接続器標準仕様書" (lit., "Standard for a Insertable Connector"), which became JIS C 8303. At the time, Japan was barely an industrial nation, and generally relied on imported power outlets. The leading designs up for consideration were thus the German Schuko and the American "2-...


69

In Moscow, under former mayor Yuriy Luzhkov, it was built a line (Butovo line) which is mostly elevated. I think the practice was not considered quite successful as a result. There are many drawbacks: The elevated line still consumes ground area. Even though one can lay highways and streets under it, one has to demolish buildings. Not much different from a ...


59

The Chinese designed the wall to be an effective barrier; that was the goal. To answer your question, we need to ask: what land barrier stopped foreign troops the best? The answer in China, and everywhere else, is mountains. The Great Wall is nothing more than a fortification of existing natural barriers. Look closely at the pictures you've posted, and those ...


58

This is mostly about urban planning, and how much change the local government can or will be able to make to the existing streets. In London, the central parts of the city (Westminster and the City) still have their street plan from medieval days, as the 1666 fire didn't burn the foundations. The streets there are far too narrow, and the buildings too ...


31

For New York, the answer is related to real estate value. In New York City, the construction of the metro was performed by real estate developers. The idea was to build homes, then connect them to the city with a subway. Sales of the new homes, in principle, then funded the metro system. Above ground trains were not conducive to high priced luxury ...


28

If you look at the details of the oldest buildings on your list, all of them are built from fieldstone or minimally-shaped quarried stone. Further, the building materials were either found on-site or transported a relatively short distance. Most of the Fertile Crescent, and particularly Mesopotamia, does not have access to these building materials. ...


28

They did. The Anglo-Saxons still used fortified areas and cities or towns, re-used old ones and build them anew. It just takes a bit of time, effort and money to develop those walls and fortifications, to build and to maintain them. And perhaps a bit of an incentive. Like say, not Norman but simply Viking incursions, or earlier some extended 'local troubles'....


25

There is a tunnel under a mountain in Samos built around 530 BC. It is described by Herodotus, book III, 60. In 1882 a tunnel which matches Herodotus description has been actually found. It is one kilometer long and 2 times 2 meters in cross section, so its dimensions suggest that people walked through it. What is especially amazing about this tunnel is ...


20

The Great Wall of China: It is the longest man-made construction in the world. In the old times, it was of great military importance of preventing the enemies' intrusion and was regarded as the 'Guardian Angel' of the central plain in the past. - Great Wall of China FAQs Why did they build the Great Wall of China? The Great Wall of China is the ...


18

Tough to narrow this down, but at least a couple sources make what may be a useful comparison to more recent construction of Scottish military roads in the 1700s. from The Secret History of the Roman Roads of Britain: And their Impact on Military History, By M.C. Bishop Direct comparison is obviously difficult, not least because there would inevitably ...


16

Actually, some of the oldest known man-made structures are in the Fertile Crescent (FC). The list in your question purposefully excludes sites like Göbekli Tepe, Tell es-Sultan, and Tell Qaramel, each in the FC, on the basis that they're not "recognizable standing buildings". As such there's inherent bias in the source you cite to exclude sites that have ...


16

Pre-Norman English (or Anglo-Saxons) didn't build primarily in stone for their town defenses because a) it would have been prohibitively expensive; b) it would have required much more time than they originally had; and c) it did not correspond to the primary use of the burh system. After the early construction of the burh system, successful townships did ...


15

The point at which The Temple became holy would be from its dedication forward. The Temple was rebuilt a few times. Below is the dedication for the first temple. 1 Kings chapter 8 gives a description of the events surrounding the dedication which involved: Gathering of the nation's leadership v 1-5 The installation of The Ark v 6-9 A cloud filling the holy ...


13

There appear to be two candidates which can definitely be considered for oldest road tunnel in the world, and a couple of others which are older but may be disputed. Roughly in chronological order, they are as follows: 1. The Euphrates Tunnel (circa. 2180 to 2160 BC, a little less than 1 km long). This has the most dubious claim as it was probably a ...


11

No, wheels are not older than walls. Walls (as in city walls, designed to protect a group of people) have been discovered at Jericho, and dated to c 8000 BCE. The earliest walls of any kind that we have found so far are at Göbekli Tepe, and these have been dated to the 9th millennium BCE. The earliest wheel that we have found was discovered in the city of ...


10

If you're willing to accept the Navy of South Carolina as being part of the US Navy, then the Indien/South Carolina, built in an Amsterdam shipyard in 1778, seems to meet your criteria. It was built to order as a warship rather than being converted from an existing merchant ship, for some government that eventually became the United States. The only thing ...


10

Noise, vibrations, and visual impact drop the value of the nearest houses, and decrease quality of life for its inhabitants. The maintenance of an elevated system is expensive, not only economically but also in terms of streets closed to traffic for performance of maintenance work.


10

It's not just Europe but even narrower. You'll notice the top 3 listed are all in France. Of the rest of the top 10, 4 are in the British Isles. I think Mark has about half of the answer: These structures are over 5 thousand years old. Human-made materials have trouble lasting that long, so the very nature of the question privileges areas with lots of ...


10

This answers primarily the first version of the question that is still evidenced in the misconception of the title, and thus the rest of this answer is still relevant to read in conjunction with semaphore's answer, which would otherwise re-inforce these misconceptions: Q Why does Japan use the same type of AC power outlet as the US? This is actually not ...


9

Quite often subway lines are built to relieve traffic pressure on areas where there is no room to add more roads, including the towers needed to allow for the creation of elevated roads or railways. In fact, if you look at cities with subways, almost all of them have the tracks come above ground and continue as a sort of light railway at the point where the ...


9

Actually, in Jewish law, non-high priests are allowed in the Holy of Holies not only during the original construction, but when renovations or repairs are needed. Maimonides, in his code of Jewish law (Laws of the Holy Temple 7:23), thus states: When builders [are required] to enter the Temple building to construct or repair it... it is a mitzvah for the [...


7

I can add that Washington DC is still expanding its Metro and the expansion is not underground. The newest line is the Silver Line, and as it goes through Tysons Corner it's almost entirely elevated. There was a loud grassroots movement to put it underground through Tysons Corner, but underground is much more expensive and risky. The arguments against ...


7

In the mid 1920s the Navy commissioned the construction of several ships for the Asiatic Fleet based on the Yangtze. The ships were built by the Kiangnan Dock and Engineering Works, in Shanghai, China. Those ships were USS Luzon, USS Mindanao, USS Oahu, USS Panay, USS Guam, and USS Tutulia.


7

Civilisations not only build buildings, but destroy and reuse them. Many ruins were effectively used as quarries by local people and stones, e.g. bricks from Roman buildings ended up in an early medieval church, then in a late medieval fortress, then in a noble home (see here, only in Hungarian). Wikipedia also mentions how roman bricks were reused. I ...


6

tl; dr How close did the French actually come to succeeding at getting the project underway? The project never came close to getting underway. The route chosen for the survey proved to be unsuitable for a number of reasons, and this, together with British political objections, ensured that France would never be awarded a concession to build the canal. ...


5

Not sure if they qualify but the Asheville and Natchez were River Class frigates built in Canada in 1942, for the RN and RCN, transferred while still being built under the Reverse Lease Lend to the USN. If they qualify there were also a number of Modified Flower corvettes transferred while being built. Others?


5

I think is possible that only Roman buildings are still in use. In Spain we have the Theatre of Mérida, inaugurated 15 B.C and today it is used to play Roman tragedies, and Hercules' Tower, a Roman lighthouse in A Coruña, still in use.


5

We still have an active shipyard on Guam and at Guantanamo. We have had other shipyards overseas in the past, but the rest of them have been turned over to the local government. The only exception is the shipyard on Pago Pago which was turned over to the Department of the Interior. http://www.shipbuildinghistory.com/history/shipyards/3public.htm


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