84

Japanese AC power outlets were first standardised in 1926 with the publication of the "挿込型接続器標準仕様書" (lit., "Standard for a Insertable Connector"), which became JIS C 8303. At the time, Japan was barely an industrial nation, and generally relied on imported power outlets. The leading designs up for consideration were thus the German Schuko and the American "2-...


69

In Moscow, under former mayor Yuriy Luzhkov, it was built a line (Butovo line) which is mostly elevated. I think the practice was not considered quite successful as a result. There are many drawbacks: The elevated line still consumes ground area. Even though one can lay highways and streets under it, one has to demolish buildings. Not much different from a ...


58

The Chinese designed the wall to be an effective barrier; that was the goal. To answer your question, we need to ask: what land barrier stopped foreign troops the best? The answer in China, and everywhere else, is mountains. The Great Wall is nothing more than a fortification of existing natural barriers. Look closely at the pictures you've posted, and those ...


58

This is mostly about urban planning, and how much change the local government can or will be able to make to the existing streets. In London, the central parts of the city (Westminster and the City) still have their street plan from medieval days, as the 1666 fire didn't burn the foundations. The streets there are far too narrow, and the buildings too ...


35

The Epidaurus Theatre (ca. 300-340 BC), the Delphi theatre (4th century BC) and the Odeon of Herodes Atticus (161 AD) in the Acropolis of Athens (known locally as the the Herodeon), still fulfil their original purpose, all three are constantly used as venues for various festivals. The ancient theatre in Dion is also used occasionally. The Colosseum (...


31

For New York, the answer is related to real estate value. In New York City, the construction of the metro was performed by real estate developers. The idea was to build homes, then connect them to the city with a subway. Sales of the new homes, in principle, then funded the metro system. Above ground trains were not conducive to high priced luxury ...


25

There is a tunnel under a mountain in Samos built around 530 BC. It is described by Herodotus, book III, 60. In 1882 a tunnel which matches Herodotus description has been actually found. It is one kilometer long and 2 times 2 meters in cross section, so its dimensions suggest that people walked through it. What is especially amazing about this tunnel is ...


20

The Great Wall of China: It is the longest man-made construction in the world. In the old times, it was of great military importance of preventing the enemies' intrusion and was regarded as the 'Guardian Angel' of the central plain in the past. - Great Wall of China FAQs Why did they build the Great Wall of China? The Great Wall of China is the ...


19

If you look at the details of the oldest buildings on your list, all of them are built from fieldstone or minimally-shaped quarried stone. Further, the building materials were either found on-site or transported a relatively short distance. Most of the Fertile Crescent, and particularly Mesopotamia, does not have access to these building materials. ...


15

Actually, some of the oldest known man-made structures are in the Fertile Crescent (FC). The list in your question purposefully excludes sites like Göbekli Tepe, Tell es-Sultan, and Tell Qaramel, each in the FC, on the basis that they're not "recognizable standing buildings". As such there's inherent bias in the source you cite to exclude sites that have ...


14

Tough to narrow this down, but at least a couple sources make what may be a useful comparison to more recent construction of Scottish military roads in the 1700s. from The Secret History of the Roman Roads of Britain: And their Impact on Military History, By M.C. Bishop Direct comparison is obviously difficult, not least because there would inevitably ...


13

There appear to be two candidates which can definitely be considered for oldest road tunnel in the world, and a couple of others which are older but may be disputed. Roughly in chronological order, they are as follows: 1. The Euphrates Tunnel (circa. 2180 to 2160 BC, a little less than 1 km long). This has the most dubious claim as it was probably a ...


11

Steel grating for platform use was first developed and produced by Walter Irving at the beginning of the 20th century. It was first used for ventilation of New York's stiflingly hot subway system, but his company, Irving Subway Grating, quickly marketed it for a range of other uses including bridge decking and catwalks. Aluminum grates (which might be what'...


11

No, wheels are not older than walls. Walls (as in city walls, designed to protect a group of people) have been discovered at Jericho, and dated to c 8000 BCE. The earliest walls of any kind that we have found so far are at Göbekli Tepe, and these have been dated to the 9th millennium BCE. The earliest wheel that we have found was discovered in the city of ...


10

If you're willing to accept the Navy of South Carolina as being part of the US Navy, then the Indien/South Carolina, built in an Amsterdam shipyard in 1778, seems to meet your criteria. It was built to order as a warship rather than being converted from an existing merchant ship, for some government that eventually became the United States. The only thing ...


10

While not exactly a building, the Western Wall in Jerusalem ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Wall ) is a site in which daily praying takes place. It was constructed around around 19 BCE.


10

Noise, vibrations, and visual impact drop the value of the nearest houses, and decrease quality of life for its inhabitants. The maintenance of an elevated system is expensive, not only economically but also in terms of streets closed to traffic for performance of maintenance work.


10

It's not just Europe but even narrower. You'll notice the top 3 listed are all in France. Of the rest of the top 10, 4 are in the British Isles. I think Mark has about half of the answer: These structures are over 5 thousand years old. Human-made materials have trouble lasting that long, so the very nature of the question privileges areas with lots of ...


10

This answers primarily the first version of the question that is still evidenced in the misconception of the title, and thus the rest of this answer is still relevant to read in conjunction with semaphore's answer, which would otherwise re-inforce these misconceptions: Q Why does Japan use the same type of AC power outlet as the US? This is actually not ...


9

Quite often subway lines are built to relieve traffic pressure on areas where there is no room to add more roads, including the towers needed to allow for the creation of elevated roads or railways. In fact, if you look at cities with subways, almost all of them have the tracks come above ground and continue as a sort of light railway at the point where the ...


8

Turns out it was teak wood. Teak was the preferred would and the red brown color wouldn't be a mahogony stain, but the natural color. As teak is sourced from the Thai/Burma area, Dec. 7th ended the supply chain. Douglas-Fir was substituted on the newer carriers in WWII, and that would have to have been stained and subsequently painted. http://cs....


8

Actually, England had no part in the building of the Suez canal. That was all France. Here's what happened: Napoleon took his troops on a little excursion through Egypt at the turn of the 19th century. This got a lot of Frenchmen associating the country with romance and adventure. At the time, France had probably the best Civil Engineering schooling ...


7

In the mid 1920s the Navy commissioned the construction of several ships for the Asiatic Fleet based on the Yangtze. The ships were built by the Kiangnan Dock and Engineering Works, in Shanghai, China. Those ships were USS Luzon, USS Mindanao, USS Oahu, USS Panay, USS Guam, and USS Tutulia.


7

In Europe there were historically two ways to build ships. Wikipedia refers to them as Clinker and Carvel. Carvel originated in the Mediterranean while Clinker was more typical in the Atlantic. Clinker-built requires less caulking so is more lightweight and simpler to build, resulting in a flexible hull well suited for the rigours of ocean travel. ...


7

I can add that Washington DC is still expanding its Metro and the expansion is not underground. The newest line is the Silver Line, and as it goes through Tysons Corner it's almost entirely elevated. There was a loud grassroots movement to put it underground through Tysons Corner, but underground is much more expensive and risky. The arguments against ...


6

According to this source, Carthage remained a minor Phoenician outpost until after the fall of Tyre to Alexander the Great in 332 BC. At that time many of the wealthy citizens of Tyre, having ransomed themselves from Alexander, moved to Carthage and began the constructions that led to it rapidly becoming the wealthiest city of the Western Mediterranean. If ...


6

tl; dr How close did the French actually come to succeeding at getting the project underway? The project never came close to getting underway. The route chosen for the survey proved to be unsuitable for a number of reasons, and this, together with British political objections, ensured that France would never be awarded a concession to build the canal. ...


6

The Roman theatre in Caesarea.


6

Civilisations not only build buildings, but destroy and reuse them. Many ruins were effectively used as quarries by local people and stones, e.g. bricks from Roman buildings ended up in an early medieval church, then in a late medieval fortress, then in a noble home (see here, only in Hungarian). Wikipedia also mentions how roman bricks were reused. I ...


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