28

I suppose you are asking about real radios (wireless). They were quite bulky decorated wooden boxes. They had vacuum tubes instead of transistors. They were considered (somewhat) luxury items and not every family owned them. They had long, medium and short waves ranges. Later ultra-short (AM and FM were added). First transistor radios appeared in 1960s. They ...


18

Laws requiring county-of-origin labels seem to have been a response to German industrialization and protectionism. According to a report by the U.S. International Trade Commission: Country-of-origin marking laws were first enacted in the 1880s in various European countries* to distinguish imported goods (particularly German goods) from domestic goods, ...


8

The earliest I could find was by a John R. Norris in 1957 for a radio earpiece: There are a lot of behind-the-ear headphone/microphone combos, but that's not quite what you're asking about. The first dedicated behind-the-ear headphone I found was Simeon Schreiber's 1988 "Bone Conduction Audio Listening Device and Method": But importantly, the first patent ...


7

As it happens, I'm getting partly paid in food today. There is a system to record how often I go to the staff canteen, and the next month that is deducted from my payslip. Of course that's only a small percentage of the total. And I'm not really forced to go to the canteen, if I don't go there nothing is deducted. But there are days where the schedule makes ...


7

In the US rail road workers were often paid in such a way that their earnings usually got devoted to their food and board. In todays terms it would be like getting $500 a week but having to spend $495 at the company canteen (usually because there was no other option). Yes it did create some unrest, but not much. Another example (on the other end of the ...


7

Nothing modern about this trend at all - just witness this ancient Greek cuirass replete with muscle tendons, rib cage, and even a navel and two nipples: This additional article traces the history of such Greek cuirasses through various stages of development. As for why it is so prevalent, try asking your wife why she wears lipstick and high heels - ...


6

Regarding technology in the 1930's: Steam-powered or electric train locomotives (very few diesels). Propeller-driven aircraft (no jets yet); dirigibles were also in use. All electronics was driven by vacuum tubes (no transistors yet). Only AM radio (no FM), most radios were pieces of furniture. No TV. Most movies were still in black & white. ...


6

The following video should give you an overview of the working class experience of the 1930s in the United States, combined with a basic look at the material culture of the era. youtube: US Dept. Labor For an depth accounts, I have to immediately recommend social history. ABC-CLIO publishes a ten volume account of the United States in the 20th century, but ...


6

Context; context; context. The aim is to communicate, accurately; so be kind to your dear reader. Anytime the context of a statement is entirely American, it is clearly correct, even most correct, to refer material produced prior to late fall 1941 as pre-war. However anytime the context is not entirely American, such as with Lend Lease for example, the ...


6

Yes, it is both appropriate and common to refer to things Americana before December 1941 as prewar. True, the war was raging since 1939 (or much earlier, 1937, if one considers what was going on in Asia) and while not directly involved in the hostilities, America was a participant indirectly via materiel aid to the UK, and volunteers flying in both China ...


6

After the political collapse of the Soviet Union came the crash of its industrial system. As a result, for some time during the 90s many workers were paid in kind. Here's a description: Starved for cash, factories reverted to paying workers and paying off debts to other factories in kind. Therefore, in many areas of Russia a barter economy emerged as ...


6

Household laundry detergents with fluorescent optical brighteners were common by 1967. See Optical brighteners as detergent additives Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Volume 45, pp 497–504 (July 1968). See especially table XI which gives the specific compounds in use in 7 different US laundry detergents as of early 1967. See also The ...


5

Radios in the Soviet Union were the personal property of citizens and were designed for wireless reception, or for use on a wired network broadcasting. "FM-band" had (range УКВ OIRT (65,9-74 MHz)) in the Soviet radio. AM (amplitude modulation) was also labeled it as the СВ (средневолновый) диапазон - medium wave range.


3

Working Class People, including his assembly line workers. The cost of the car had dropped from $850 - $340 from 1908 - 1920's. 1920's Ford introduced easily obtainable financing with an installment payment plans. In 1914, Henry Ford announced that it would pay workers a minimum wage of $5 a day. This was more than double the average for the automobile ...


3

Kampuchea (Cambodia) in 1975-1979 under the Khmer Rouge. Cambodia was a cashless nation; the government confiscated all republican era currency. Shops closed, and workers received their pay in the form of food rations, because there was no money in circulation. (Source.)


2

In Debt, the first 5000 years Graeber talks about how in England and Scotland for much of the 1800's, cash payments to manufacturing employees were irregular. To get them through months of non-payment, Graeber says people were expected to steal scrap and the the product of manufacture in order to get by. Meanwhile, tavern owners, grocers, and others have to ...


2

The rural population was indeed a significant source of demand for cars. From 1911 to 1920 the number of automobiles owned by farmers increased 21 times, while overall registrations increased 13 times. By 1920, more than a quarter of cars were owned by farmers. Rural doctors were also heavy buyers of cars, as they could serve a wider area, respond to calls ...


2

Country of origin requirements were not common law until 1891. (MADRID AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE INTERNATIONAL REGISTRATION OF MARKS) In 1890, the U.S. Congress passed protectionist tariff legislation - the McKinley Tariff. This legislation, in addition to imposing heavy tariffs on imports and provoking a major depression in the United States, also ...


1

Looking at events called "ball" as described by the locals, roughly at the time: While Mr. Leese was erecting his mansion, which seems to have been rather a grand structure, being made of frame, sixty feet long and twenty-five feet broad, Captain Kichardson was kindly proceeding across the bay to Sonoma, where he invited all the principal folks of the ...


1

'prewar' becomes important when you consider the context in which wartime production functioned. In the case of a radio, it is almost certain that it's prewar, as consumer radio production essentially ceased during the war. During WW2, most of the higher end consumer goods were discontinued in favor of war production. A radio would have been the equivalent ...


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