99

There were several well-known attacks. Aleutian Islands Campaign On June 6, two days after the bombing of Dutch Harbor, 500 Japanese marines landed on Kiska, one of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska...The next day, a total of 1,140 Japanese infantrymen landed on Attu via Holtz Bay, eventually reaching Massacre Bay and Chichagof Harbor...The ...


64

The assassination itself did not cause the war — it only caused the first declaration of war in World War One. What really happened between the assassination (June 28) and the eruption of war (August 1 & 2) was this: Convinced that anti-Austrian propaganda coming out of Serbia had led to the assassination, Austria, or rather Austro-Hungary, declared ...


56

A combination of the UN, NATO, the Red Cross, Sarajevo International Airport, the Sarajevo Tunnel, smugglers, and the Bosnian Army saved Sarajevo. While the siege officially ended in Feb 1996, it was loosened by steps, and supplies were always flowing in. Early on, the UN Security Council made a number of resolutions to protect the civilians of Yugoslavia ...


53

Quite a few candidates if: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_heads_of_regimes_who_were_later_imprisoned ... [sort by country] is anything to go by... Andalusia (technically an autonomous community in Spain) appears to have two former presidents sitting in jail since 2016. Argentina has a whopping 8 presidents that sat in jail, including 2 from 2007 ...


46

Aluminium refining requires huge amounts of electricity so plants are often sited close to things like hydroelectric dams or abundant supplies of coal or natural gas. Bauxite (aluminium ore) needs to be refined by electrolysis so it is very good way to make use of surplus off-peak high output electrical power and the costs of shipping the ore to the plant ...


38

The Korean War and the Vietnam War are fundamentally very different conflicts. With the former, South Korea was unambiguously invaded by North Korea in an explicit war of conquest. Due to lucky political circumstances, United Nations was able to sanction a military operation to defend South Korea. The Security Council, Having determined that the ...


37

There are plenty of industrial uses for steam engines, mostly for generating electricity. Any coal-fueled power station is a steam engine, or more likely a set of them. The only big change in technology is that converting the steam's expansion energy to kinetic energy is now done using a steam turbine and not a piston engine. Since the question specifically ...


34

Peru has an interesting case of former presidents being incarcerated or in the eye of justice. Alberto Fujimori in right now in prison, for human right violations, 25 years of conviction. Ollanta Humala is in preventive reclusion, investigated for corruption. Alejandro Toledo, currently fugitive of justice for corruption as well. Case Oderbrecht (link ...


34

Confirming Brian Z and his answer: this is most likely a penumatic tube mail system. And strictly speaking: "What is the object moving…?" – It's not a "cuboid box" but a cylindrical container, also called capsule. Most easily visible in this still: You see a darker edge on top, a lighter reflection of light at the bottom of the tube. On the right is a ...


32

Whether the assassination of an Arch-Duke is a 'minor event' is a matter of opinion. In this particular case it was also the assassination of the Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, the Inspector of its armed forces (implying probable role as Commander in Chief in the event of war) and a close relative of the Emperor. Arch-Duke Franz-Ferdinand was all of ...


28

Nuclear power stations are steam engines, they just use a different source of energy to generate the steam from what you're probably thinking of. So yes, steam engines are in widespread use around the planet.


24

That's a pneumatic tube. The tube itself is transparent in this case, but the object you see moving through it is a capsule carrying documents, or maybe cash or other small objects. They are still used in some places (in that link, for delivering food), but were a common feature of most offices before the rise of computers and digital technology.


21

Please don't use CPI. CPI only measures consumption bundles for wage workers. If you want to measure inflation you need to ask why you're equating the value of money over time. www.measuringworth.com goes into this, in great detail, with multiple theoretical papers and multiple measuring systems for US inflation. what amount of modern currency would ...


20

Las Vegas was not founded in a particularly random desert. It was founded on a meadow (las vegas is Spanish for "the meadows") watered by the nearby Big Springs, or Las Vegas Springs. As such it was a watering spot on the Old Spanish Trail. After the Civil War, O.D. Gass set up the first permanent white settlement there. Other settlers followed, and it was ...


20

Japan had a lot of targets closer to home. They included Southeast Asia (which they conquered), China, and India (Japan came fairly close). They did attack American possessions on the far side of the Pacific such as Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines, plus Midway and the Aleutians, but otherwise, pretty much left mainland America alone after Pearl Harbor. ...


18

In 1974 the PLO adopted what is called "The Ten Point Program". It is a program that outlines a phased plan for liberating all of Palestine. Liberating here means liberating it from Israeli rule. Obviously once all of Palestine has been liberated that means there is no Israel at all. If we take this at face value, that means that any compromise you make ...


18

Aluminum manufacturing is very energy-intensive and requires large amounts of electricity, which the other comments have covered. Washington State and the Pacific Northwest has an abundance of inexpensive electricity due to the large-scale hydro-electric power projects installed from the 1930s through the 1970s. Examples include the Grand Coulee Dam, Chief ...


18

Because it was not a complete siege thanks to the Sarajevo Tunnel and Operation Irma. The first one was a tunnel that passed below the siege, and the second one was a security zone protected by the United Nations around the airport of Sarajevo. These connections to the external world allowed people to be evacuated, and also supplies were sent to the city ...


17

There are only approximately 20,000 Zoroastrians in Iran, which is about 0.026% of the total population. I would not say Zoroastrianism is strong in Iran in terms of the total population. The only way Zoroastrianism can be said to be strong in Iran is because it has the second-largest Zoroastrian population after India (~69,000). See List of countries by ...


17

Let me add a few details to Semaphore's answer. One is that the Vietnam war actually ended with the North Vietnam invasion of South Vietnam. This happened soon after the US withdrawal, and in violation of the peace treaty. The UN Security Council could not react properly because the Soviets had the right of veto in it. (As it could not react in 2014 on the ...


17

South Korea right now has their last two presidents, Lee Myung-bak and Park Geun-hye in jail. Then again, almost all ex-presidents of South Korea end up either on trial or committing suicide...


12

Steam Engine: A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Unless you are specifically referring to steam railway locomotives, a particular application of the steam engine, then yes steam engines are widely used as the most common worldwide means of producing electric power. The particular class of ...


12

The Wahhabi ideology started as a revivalist movement (return to the roots) and quickly became strongly conservative, emphasizing intolerance not just to other religions, but to other variants of Islam. This provides a tool for dealing with the dissenters (accuse them of deviations from the party line). Also, the emphasis on the early "Rightly Guided ...


12

According to this paper from Penn's Population Studies Center, perhaps to go somewhere safer? But it is not difficult to find conditions equivalent to combat in American cities. In Philadelphia, the death rate for black males aged 20-34 in 2002 was 4.37/1000, 11% higher than for troops in Iraq. A slight majority of the deaths were from homicide (...


12

Keep in mind that most of China was controlled by local warlords (or Imperial Japan) throughout much of this period. A lot of the time there wasn't much of a "under the Republican government" to speak of since they were effectively ruled by regional strongmen. However, generally speaking, women (particularly those from literati families) experienced a ...


12

It wasn't just Apple. Commodore and Atari both had technically superior machines available for much of the early history of the PC platform, and both also got destroyed in the market. The best answer I've ever seen to this question came from Eric Raymond's The Cathedral and the Bazaar*. The basic gist of the argument is that when it comes to a competition ...


11

There are many techniques used by military recruiters. You can find a list on Wikipedia. To sum up: There are a lot of very poor people in the USA too. As in your county the people recruited don't have better options. This is called "poverty draft" in many articles. Recruiters give you hope that they will pay for your education A recruiter interviewed in ...


11

The flag is known as the Black Standard of Muhammad. There are many variants of the flag, and as far as I can tell the variant used by ISIS is original, but other variants have been used by many groups before. The flag can either be a pure black flag, or it may have the Shahada ("There is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.") printed on it ...


11

The war was already built-in, because Germany was faced with a strategic conundrum/objective circumstances: If Russians enter the war, Germany risks losing it, fighting France and Russia on two fronts Russians (if I recall the contemporary estimates correctly) would take ~2 weeks to call up its forces and actually be able to attack. As such, Germany's only (...


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