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46

Yes, but for fixed periods of (for example) six months or 1 or 2 years rather than for life. This section of the 13th Amendment, ratified on the 6th of December, 1865, was controversial from the outset. Slavery Under the Thirteenth Amendment: Race and the Law of Crime and Punishment in the PostCivil War South by Peter Wallenstein in the Louisiana Law Review (...


38

This is from the so called Crusader Bible: Image icon MS M.638, fol. 11v An Execution, Joshua's Final Commands, Joshua's Passing Old Testament Miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions Paris, France ca. 1244–1254 390 x 300 mm Purchased by J.P. Morgan (1867–1943) in 1916 MS M.638, fol. 11v See more information » ...


11

Apparently the illustration is from the Morgan Bible, depicting the execution by Joshua of the Amorite kings. For biblical context, see Joshua 10-11. According to Wikipedia, "The prevailing scholarly view is that the book of Joshua is not a factual account of historical events."


8

To "take the cross" is to take crusader vows and participate in a crusade to the Holy Land. It doesn't seem to have been a punishment exactly. It was intended as a form of penance so the wrongdoers could redeem themselves in the eyes of God (or, more accurately, the eyes of the Church) for their misdeeds.


6

Short answer From the available evidence, it would appear that maybe as many as half of the (around 40) fatalities were passersby. This can be tentatively deduced from the likely number of non-passersby in the two carriages attacked. However, other police placed around side streets were also targeted by the Bolsheviks gunmen. The only named victims are the ...


6

You are correct that Heresy was an offence dealt with by the Church courts. However, the church courts could indeed sentence heretics to death. If convicted, the offender was then handed over to the State for that sentence to be carried out. However, this does not mean that the State ordered the death of the offender. They merely carried out the sentence. ...


5

tl; dr Did this punishment ever apply to murderers of other ethnic origins in Australia? No. However applying different rules for the execution of Aboriginal people convicted of a capital offence was not unique to South Australia. A similar law also applied, for example, in Western Australia. South Australia Public executions for capital offences ...


3

Until tech evolved enough, there were 3 basic methods: community word spreading (like talking about it in public locations like bars, etc) local newspaper articles (missing announcement posted there) local posters (posters on building walls and specially where many people were present, like markets)


1

Your question is trying to be so precise that it embeds its own answer. You ask: This quesiton is not about [the human rights abuse that is convict leasing], but about true, pre-Civil War-type chattel slavery. That is, did a court ever tell a defendant something like, "We find you guilty of Second Degree Aggravated Mopery with Intent to Do This and the ...


1

I wanted to comment on your question, and though my reputation is great enough to answer, it is not great enough to comment (allowing me to foolishly answer, but only wisely comment, hmm?). The article states (thank you Google translate): Since rape was such an extremely serious crime in the Middle Ages, there is little to suggest that it may have been ...


1

Just to add to Tyler Durden's answer which gave examples of the US military regulating / enabling brothels in France during WWII. I'm familiar with similar activities by the US military in Hawaii during WWII, where the Navy established price controls and red light districts for the practice. Prostitution in Hawaii The "bawdy houses" soon set up in ...


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