17

The groundwork that allowed the use of the strait by the crusaders began much earlier than 1190, and has as much to do with other political and military developments around the Iberian peninsula than anything else. The Almohadin fleet had been for centuries a dominant force in the region, and has essentially controlled access to the Mediterranean for 400 ...


15

It appears that the crusaders were eventually pushed back onto Cyprus, which continued to have Frankish rulers for another three centuries. The Knights Hospitaller also moved on to Rhodes for about two centuries, until expelled by Suleiman. From there they moved to Malta, which they held until Napoleon took it from them in 1798. The Knights Templar tried ...


10

Saladin was actually at war with the Almohads. The latter were probably pleased to see the crusaders arrive on the scene. There is a good article on this by A. Baadj in "Al-Qanṭara", 2013, pp. 276-295. A pdf is available on "Google Scholar".


8

That 14th century passage of Richard eating Saracens is fictitious, for reasons @T.E.D. has gone into. Richard Coer de Lyon is a romance, not history. In this story, King Richard first became a cannibal when he requested pork to cure himself of a malady, and was given a Saracen instead - as a practical joke by his knights. Richard Coer de Lyon is a ...


7

Quoted from "The Civilization of the Middle Ages" by Norman F. Cantor: "Indeed, Acre never fell to the Moslems. In 1291 the French knights who garrisoned it decided that their homeland had forgotten them and that the siege of many years to which they had been subjected would never be relieved. They arranged with the Arab general to surrender the ...


6

This order is quite old and previously called Hospitaller. The earlier designs were much simpler crosses and not really "arrow-like". The design is quite varied over the medieval period and ranged from a plain Latin cross to the 'modern' design. Obsidionis Rhodie Urbis Descriptio, Bibliotheque Nationale, Ms. Lat. 6067, f37v, Paris, France. While there ...


6

Jaroslav Folda of the University of North Carolina described the gonfalons of several military orders as follows: The Templar battle standard is well known to have been a long narrow vertical rectangle, argent with a chief sable, that is a white standard topped by a broad band of black. This is the famous gonfalon baucent, or the piebald standard. We ...


5

As this was the height of the Middle Ages, our sources for these kinds of things quite frankly stink. The legend about King Richard seems to come from a "ballad-chronicle". They were sort of the lowbrow popular equivalent to the Romantic Epic. These were stories sung by bards chiefly for the purpose of entertainment. The accurate recounting of historical ...


5

The Catholic Encyclopedia contains a length article on the Catholic Military Orders as well as on specific orders such as the Teutonic Knights and the Knights Templar. Some key points from those articles are: Religious State The knights of the great orders were regarded in the Church as analogous to monks whose three vows they professed and whose immunities ...


4

A large portion of the (ex-)Crusaders married local Christian women and stayed behind in the Levant after the demise of the Crusader states. The largest Christian community in present-day Palestine are the Latin-rite Catholics, generally believed to be descendants of Crusaders, though now they speak Arabic and are integrated in Palestinian society.


4

At this point in history the Northern European galleys were much faster and seaworthy than anything the Arabs were building. Also, in arms the Northern Europeans had caught up with the Arabs, and exceeded them by far in the quality of shields and armor. Richard's knights were fully armored in steel while the typical Spanish arab was wearing cloth robes and a ...


4

You are right that William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, was an extremely important figure in English - and even in world - history. It can be argued that, as protector and regent for King Henry III, he was responsible for the re-issue of Magna Carta in 1217. Indeed, he is often referred to as "The Greatest Knight in Christendom", although - to be fair - ...


3

First, it should be noted that there were a lot of Eastern Christians in the Middle East before during and after the Crusades. Some of their cultural descendents still live in Lebanon and Israel/Palestine and Iraq and Syria. There are many Christians in Egypt. If you're talking about Western colonists and their descendents, they almost certainly were all ...


2

Excellent article explaining the timeline, each crusade and the complex relationship between Saladin and the Berberic Empire: The crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of indulgences for those who fought in them and directed against external and internal enemies of Christendom for the recovery of Christian property or in ...


1

Finally, I found following books that might help me: "Monks of War" by Desmond Seward "Histoire de l'ordre de Malte" by Bertrand Galimard Flavigny I will start with Monks of War, yet it seems to be mostly focused on presenting historical events rather than discussing organization, military training and spiritual practice of knights. I hope I will find ...


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