45

It seems likely this is a historical myth. According to WikiPedia's list of Papal Bulls*, Urban II did issue a bull that year, but it had to do with who was allowed to excommunicate the ruler of the Kingdom of Aragon. I can't find a link to the text online either, so it seems possible other topics were dealt with, but that one's so different it seems ...


38

The Middle Ages was not particularly known for being a civil and orderly period. Leopold V had no authority of any kind to arrest Richard I. He did it simply because he wanted to, and could. The illegality of the act is reflected by the fact that it drew official sanction from the Church: Pope Celestine III excommunicated Leopold, and compelled him to ...


22

Yes. Quite closely resembling: See that structure in the South-East? The temple mount? That's were the Knights Templar took their name from. This is almost a fixed point in time. Plan of twelfth-century Jerusalem Adrian J.Boas: "Crusader Archaeology. The Material Culture of the Latin East", Routledge: London, New York, 1999, p13. ...


12

Short answer Pope Urban II issued no such bull for the First Crusade. The source which first made this claim, possibly Pramod K. Nayar, in 'The Postcolonial Studies Dictionary', appears to have falsely assumed that Urban II's speech at the Council of Clermont in November 1095 was a papal bull (it wasn't), and then retroactively applied the much more recent ...


10

Politics, collaboration and trust dictated the routes of the armies to the Holy Land during the crusades. Each crusade is different from the others, with different participants, different nations, different objectives, different interests, different periods and different geopolitical situations. The routes to reach the holy land were studied carefully and ...


9

Might be a more recent origin. Lot 485: Antique Turkmenistan Silver Ornaments Tribal Jewelry. (3) Sold: Log in to view, Palmyra Heritage Gallery, December 9, 2018, New York, NY, US Description: Antique Turkmenistan Silver Ornaments Tribal Jewelry. (3) Size 5 3/4 – 4 1/4 inches length. weight 134.25 grams. Lot of 3 antique Turkmenistan Russian ...


7

Christendom had got too many bad news for centuries. Muslim conquest, dhimmitude, lost territories, persecuted churches. Arabia Petra, Levant, Jerusalem, Syria, North Africa, Sicily, Crete, Spain, all lost, eastern, western and heretics alike. Rampant piracy and slave taking raids. A Muslim base in south France for 80 years (Fraxinetum). Muslim raid of Rome ...


5

I have an example of three generations of a European family invading the Middle East. Fredrick I Barbarossa, Emperor of the Romans, lead a large army in the Third Crusade but drowned when crossing a river in what is now Turkey. His son Henry VI, Emperor of the Romans, sent a force of crusaders to the Middle East. Henry VI's son, Emperor of the Romans ...


5

I doubt the first words of the bull were "terra nullius," as that term has a general meaning in international law as "land that is legally unoccupied or uninhabited." Pope Urban II's acts in 1095 are listed in Jaffé's Regesta pontificum romanorum (vol. 2) pp. 676-684. Jaffé p. 688 does say the following, under 12 July 1096: In eodem concilio de liberanda ...


4

Sorry to say that, but the currently best answer on this seems to be only: "we also have not been able to locate it by searching the net". To conclude from that that it doesn't exist in the papal archives or other books not digitized –– seems a bit premature? The question comes in three interrelated but distinct parts: ––# 1. Did Urban issue a bull of ...


4

TED above has answered very successfully, I just complement. I refer to my previous answer, to state that the Crusades had amply justification without any concept of Terra Nullius. Was there the idea of "peaceful Crusades"? And the Iberians had a lot of dealings with the Muslim polities. Besides that, Muslims were not the only non-Christians ...


4

Emperor Alexios was the first (out of four) members of the Komnenos Dynasty, who instituted the Komnenos reforms. Because it was (initially) a "faction" of the Byzantine Empire, rather than representatives of the Empire itself, they went back to using their own "native" troops of peasant soldiers, rather than mercenaries. The defeat at Manzikert had made ...


4

An addition to other already excellent answers: The Western "Wailing Wall" is constructed at the very top from smaller stones placed initially by the Roman X legion. However, the large stones below that - typically about 12 tons each - which make up most of "The Wailing Wall" are the remnants of the wall built by Herod the Great's engineers. Touch the wall ...


4

Sources Good material is questionable if you are looking for full-on books, but there are some interesting paragraphs in English if you read some of Stephen Turnbull's Osprey series (Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights, 1 and 2). If you pass by the requirement for this to be in English, then the Livonian Rhymed Chronicles are an option, but I am ...


3

Jaroslav Folda of the University of North Carolina described the gonfalons of several military orders as follows: The Templar battle standard is well known to have been a long narrow vertical rectangle, argent with a chief sable, that is a white standard topped by a broad band of black. This is the famous gonfalon baucent, or the piebald standard. We ...


3

Question: Captured nobles in medieval times, were they always ransomed? No they were not always ransomed. There were many ways for a captive to be taken advantage of beyond just being ransomed for short term money. Medieval captives were entirely at the mercy of their captors. Some were held hostage for prisoner exchanges, some ransomed, some were ...


1

Was there the idea of "peaceful Crusades", which had symbolic meanings for pilgrims, or was it just the political invasion of Palestine territory, initiated by religious people (Pope Sylvester II and then Pope Urban II)? No, no and no. Peaceful crusades is a concept that is quite modern, kind of flower power 'let's all be friends' concept. The Crusades ...


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