45

It seems likely this is a historical myth. According to WikiPedia's list of Papal Bulls*, Urban II did issue a bull that year, but it had to do with who was allowed to excommunicate the ruler of the Kingdom of Aragon. I can't find a link to the text online either, so it seems possible other topics were dealt with, but that one's so different it seems ...


38

The Middle Ages was not particularly known for being a civil and orderly period. Leopold V had no authority of any kind to arrest Richard I. He did it simply because he wanted to, and could. The illegality of the act is reflected by the fact that it drew official sanction from the Church: Pope Celestine III excommunicated Leopold, and compelled him to ...


12

Short answer Pope Urban II issued no such bull for the First Crusade. The source which first made this claim, possibly Pramod K. Nayar, in 'The Postcolonial Studies Dictionary', appears to have falsely assumed that Urban II's speech at the Council of Clermont in November 1095 was a papal bull (it wasn't), and then retroactively applied the much more recent ...


11

Might be a more recent origin. Lot 485: Antique Turkmenistan Silver Ornaments Tribal Jewelry. (3) Sold: Log in to view, Palmyra Heritage Gallery, December 9, 2018, New York, NY, US Description: Antique Turkmenistan Silver Ornaments Tribal Jewelry. (3) Size 5 3/4 – 4 1/4 inches length. weight 134.25 grams. Lot of 3 antique Turkmenistan Russian ...


10

SHORT ANSWERS The Presence of Noble Ladies: The First Crusade included a large number of pilgrims, many of whom were women (including female relatives of nobles). Concerning their presence at the battle itself, there was no nearby safe refuge when the Turks attacked. Rape over Death: The church's view was that victims of rape in war did not have to do ...


10

Politics, collaboration and trust dictated the routes of the armies to the Holy Land during the crusades. Each crusade is different from the others, with different participants, different nations, different objectives, different interests, different periods and different geopolitical situations. The routes to reach the holy land were studied carefully and ...


5

I doubt the first words of the bull were "terra nullius," as that term has a general meaning in international law as "land that is legally unoccupied or uninhabited." Pope Urban II's acts in 1095 are listed in Jaffé's Regesta pontificum romanorum (vol. 2) pp. 676-684. Jaffé p. 688 does say the following, under 12 July 1096: In eodem concilio de liberanda ...


5

Emperor Alexios was the first (out of four) members of the Komnenos Dynasty, who instituted the Komnenos reforms. Because it was (initially) a "faction" of the Byzantine Empire, rather than representatives of the Empire itself, they went back to using their own "native" troops of peasant soldiers, rather than mercenaries. The defeat at Manzikert had made ...


5

Jaroslav Folda of the University of North Carolina described the gonfalons of several military orders as follows: The Templar battle standard is well known to have been a long narrow vertical rectangle, argent with a chief sable, that is a white standard topped by a broad band of black. This is the famous gonfalon baucent, or the piebald standard. We ...


5

I have an example of three generations of a European family invading the Middle East. Fredrick I Barbarossa, Emperor of the Romans, lead a large army in the Third Crusade but drowned when crossing a river in what is now Turkey. His son Henry VI, Emperor of the Romans, sent a force of crusaders to the Middle East. Henry VI's son, Emperor of the Romans ...


5

Above, TED has answered very successfully. I will just complement. I refer to my previous answer to state that the Crusades had ample justification without any concept of Terra Nullius. And the Iberians had a lot of dealings with the Muslim polities. Besides, Muslims were not the only non-Christians known. At the time of the Crusades, there was even an ...


4

Sorry to say that, but the currently best answer on this seems to be only: "we also have not been able to locate it by searching the net". To conclude from that that it doesn't exist in the papal archives or other books not digitized –– seems a bit premature? The question comes in three interrelated but distinct parts: ––# 1. Did Urban issue a bull of ...


3

Question: Captured nobles in medieval times, were they always ransomed? No they were not always ransomed. There were many ways for a captive to be taken advantage of beyond just being ransomed for short term money. Medieval captives were entirely at the mercy of their captors. Some were held hostage for prisoner exchanges, some ransomed, some were ...


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