100

This would seem to be a piece of folklore. Anthropologists have not found a single society which does not use personal names in some form; they are a human universal. However, the forms that these names take and the ways in which they are bestowed and used vary between cultures. Source: Abstract from Ellen S. Bramwell, 'Personal Names and ...


26

It seems like this was the 'polite' gesture of greeting in ancient Sumeria, and is actually the meaning of a Sumerian phrase for greeting: She faces in the direction of the cultic activity, her right arm bent at the elbow, hand raised before the face, in a well-known gesture of pious greeting, comparable to those depicted in presentation scenes, ...


25

These are Polish Army Uniforms, starting around 1919. Unfortunately the main wiki pages show no Uniforms of the times. To my knowledge, these types of zig-zag collars (Polish only, but translates well to English) were in use sometime after 1918 until 1939 and are also unique to the Polish Army. Other photo collections, without dates show the simularity of ...


19

See Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus / auctore Olao Magno ... Magnus, Olaus, 1490-1558 (click here for full Hathi Trust catalog entry for the 1562 edition) or here for Wikipedia's description. Your explanation is in Book 3, Chap 2, folio 30 verso, near the bottom of the page of the 1562 edition, and on page 98 of the nicer-looking fuller 1555 edition....


15

Although this is an enormously broad question in that we are talking about thousands of cultures across thousands of years, the prejudice against left-handers has been fairly widespread. If the answer had to be boiled down to one or two words, those words - for a variety of reasons ranging from necessity to social pressure to belief systems to practicality - ...


13

This is a long answer, so here is a list of connections that the public could have made, in no particular order: It was the work of the Gods and Goddesses It was the manifestation of the spirit within the object It was a form of magnetism It was a miniaturised form of lightning It was proof of hidden powers and magic of various kinds It was some ...


12

I think the best examples are provided by post-WW1 emancipation of women in some Muslim countries. The most salient episodes are Turkey (where Mustafa Kemal made women abandon hijab by requiring that prostitutes wear them) and Iran (where police removed hijabs by force). The result was that by 1970-ies women wore miniskirts and were going to colleges in ...


11

There is this, from the Talmud (Sanhedrin 19a) - bold is a translation from the original, non-bold is the interpolated explanation: And Rami bar Abba says: Rabbi Yosei instituted an ordinance in Tzippori (Sepphoris, northern Israel) that women should converse in the bathroom, because of the restrictions on women being secluded with men. Since the public ...


10

Umhlanga A ceremony in which everyone dresses up, very colourfully, but curiously without any special attention to covering up any part of the breasts. Reed Dance ceremony, is an annual Swazi and Zulu event. In Eswatini, tens of thousands of unmarried and childless Swazi girls and women travel from the various chiefdoms to the Ludzidzini Royal Village to ...


9

Zambia - Kankanga Dance This dance focuses very much on the breasts and is a coming of age celebration. It is practiced among the Ndembo, Northwestern Province. Scott D. Taylor in Culture and Customs of Zambia writes: This was referred to in English as the "breast dance"... This dance is described in some detail by the anthropologist Edith Turner in ...


9

I found this quote: “Based on the preceding calculations, a family of five would require an estimated 200 ha of habitat from which to gather animal and plant food. This estimate is based on an ideal ecosystem, one containing those wild plants and animals that are most suitable for human consumption. Researchers report that, in fact, modern-day hunter-...


7

While probably not representative of the "average" woman, there is recorded the view of a very remarkable woman named Aspasia, who lived during Greece's Golden Age. While a young woman, Aspasia immigrated with her aristocratic family to Athens from the Greek city of Miletus, now part of Turkey. She was married to Pericles and was famous for her intelligence, ...


6

Europe In Europe from roughly 1550 to 1700, it was considered fashionable to bare breasts up to the nipple, a style called décolletage, which caused inadvertent but frequent "wardrobe malfunctions". This played off the double function of the breast in the 17th century: its task in feeding children was seen as sacred, but with the growing distaste for nudity,...


6

The earliest evidence of a footrace may well be from Sumer around 2000 BC. You may also want to consider the Sed festival in Egypt which dates back to before 3000 BC and which involved the pharaoh having to complete a race after ruling for 30 years, this in order to prove his fitness to continue to rule. Sumer Sumerian documents also record that some of ...


6

I'll answer this with a firm, clear, "yes and no." First, in an important sense the question answers itself: for a shift to be seen as large scale, it will usually have to be big enough that it can't be reversed. If it can be reversed, then history will probably look back and say that it was just a small movement that ultimately failed. (Can you really ...


6

Historically, there are thousands of paintings that were painted by multiple artists. During renaissance and baroque, art and painting was more of a craft and trade than an expression of the artists’ message as it’s seen today. Artists had workshops with apprentices and assistants. Training included copying the master’s work and painting parts of or even ...


6

The short answer is: where there was even a small Muslim population, there were usually schools for children at the elementary level, even in villages. Overall, we are thus talking about numbers which dwarf the number of Christian missions. Without a basic religious education, Muslims cannot perform the duties required of them. Some of these schools were ...


6

The map explicitly says: rubrum pannum pertica suspensum adorant (they adore a red cloth hanging from a pole) And this guy states that these vignettes come from Marco Polo (a good guess when seeing cute figures on late medieval maps...). He also gives full translations of all of them. https://www.helmink.com/detail/?Stock=18761&Label=ort-russia Here ...


5

The name "Hannibal" (the Carthaginian general) means "grace of Baal". Hannah (the Hebrew name, Phoenician is also a Semitic language) means 'grace' in the sense of 'gift from God'. As the Carthaginians descended from Phoenicians, one may consider their religion at least as direct development of Phoenician Baal worship, even if specific details or names may ...


5

I do not have a answer about your quote, just an issue about the definition which may help or not. What I find strange in your quote is that it is not clear that the heretic must have been catholic before, or at least believe generally in Christ. Jews also may have beliefs or opinions based on or derived from Scripture, but they can not be heretics. St ...


5

It is indeed difficult to find with a simple web-search reliable information about a scientifically mostly discredited idea, that nevertheless still enjoys enormous popularity in esoteric circles. Such a configuration seems to dominate the search algorithms. The French search term lapidaires is equally contaminated with very modern explanations about crafts ...


5

Doing some research, the only Aboriginal writer I could find who has written about Aboriginal History (Capital H Western-style history that is) is Bruce Pascoe, in his book on pre-colonial Aboriginal agriculture Dark Emu; admittedly it appears that the book uses evidence from records and journals of early Colonial explorers so this may rule it out for you. ...


5

No. And, well, yes. It was an examplary piece of world literature. Not to be ignored. Indeed: Much well liked by the governmental censors. But the very word "censors" brings up the problem. It was a bit shortened — for anti-authoritarian tendencies — and sometimes a bit strangely translated. One thing was that Huck was seen as a potentially problematic ...


4

Just prior to the start of WWII, Nazi Germany managed to use lots of induced street violence and fake stories about German unification supporters being suppressed to take over Austria without themselves firing a shot, and then used fake stories about ethnic Germans being oppressed and abused to do the same thing with the defensible western portion of ...


4

The standards for inter-gender relations appear to be a deep cultural thing. As such, it tends to go hand-in-hand with language family, which means the root of the differences probably go back to a time when pretty much everyone was operating in the Mesolithic ("Stone Age") Indo-European cultures tend to a strict one-to-one marriage, with offspring from ...


3

Baal means "master", "owner", "power" in Semitic languages and was a generic name for an idol. As long as there is idolatry among Semitic peoples, they would refer to idols as Baal X where X specifies the idol (a location or a heavenly body or ...)


3

Yes. They are proudly displayed in Minoan culture, as we see from their art, for example, frescoes and statues.


3

Can you bring some specific link / name of the painting so that i can locate and look at this kind of art work. Morning in a Pine Forest by Ivan Shishkin is a fairly famous example. The Morning in a Pine Forest (Russian: Утро в сосновом лесу) is a painting by Russian artists Ivan Shishkin and Konstantin Savitsky. The bears were painted by Savitsky, ...


3

All history is bunk -- Ford All history is fairy tales rewritten by the winner of the last war -- Bismarck FWIW a lot of what we know about history is from archeology. Digs are neither bunk nor fairy tales rewritten by the winner of the last war. They're just artifacts, waiting to be analyzed. As to texts, I invited you to pick up Chris Wickham's ...


2

In the Byzantine Empire, iconoclasm was a significant cultural and ideological shift in the 8th century that was successfully reversed in the mid-9th century after an unsuccessful reversal earlier. It's quite possible that this happens most easily in monarchies, for obvious reasons. Another example would be the reversal of religious toleration in 17th ...


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