68

Regular banknotes, issued in "normal times" and made from paper are practically all rectangular and without holes. But there were a couple of times when people remembered that anything can be "money", if they just believe in it. Below are some examples of holes in notes and odd shapes. These examples were chosen to fit the question as originally framed. ...


29

This is because Americans were used to dealing in quarters at the time the denomination was chosen. During the colonial period, a common unit of currency was one eighths of a Spanish real de a ocho. Since each of these Spanish dollars were worth eight Spanish reales it was habitual to divide the eight-real coin into 12.5% wedges known as bits. Two of these ...


28

This is a Taiwanese bankote with a face value of TWD $10. It depicts Dr Sun Yat-sen with the Presidential Office in Taipei on the reverse. The text says "Bank of Taiwan", the issuing authority, and "Year 59 of the Republic", i.e. 1960 in the Common Era. This date identifies when the printing plates were designed, not when the specific note was printed or ...


27

The design is that of the "sailing ship" 10 Deutsche Mark note, a banknote first issued in 1960. The front features a 16th century painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder. On a real version of the note, the reverse would have depicted a barque of the same type like the German navy sailing ship Gorch Fock, officially meant to represent German openness to the ...


27

They are specifically Spanish 2 Escudo Doubloons minted between 1651 to 1773, or modern replicas - as they are identical, it would seem to suggest the latter. This Amazon seller 🕑 appears to have identical coins. [ Image from https://www.eaglegames.net/Empires-Age-of-Discovery-Metal-Coins-p/101617.htm, used with permission of Eagle Games.


26

The usual method was with a hammer and a cold chisel. A large stone would suffice as an anvil. Coins are fairly small and thin, and the silver coins of the period were quite soft, as you can see from the wear on the example in your picture. A blacksmith would be able to do this easily, as would almost anyone with basic metal-working skills and tools. ...


24

Edit 2: If symbols and punches count as a means of communicating a coin's denomination, then this article by Koray Konuk, which was published in the Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman coinage, would suggest that Lydian coins (i.e. the very first coins to ever use gold and silver according to Herodotus), which were minted circa 700 BCE to 550 BCE, had a ...


23

Here are a couple of square banknotes. The first one is also possibly unique in that it is one-sided. "A small square shaped and rather scarce very good or much better banknote from Argentina. This is the 1st April 1867 one peso banknote issued by the Province of Buenos Ayres in Argentina. The note is of white paper with black printing." Source: picclick....


21

Please don't use CPI. CPI only measures consumption bundles for wage workers. If you want to measure inflation you need to ask why you're equating the value of money over time. www.measuringworth.com goes into this, in great detail, with multiple theoretical papers and multiple measuring systems for US inflation. what amount of modern currency would ...


19

According to Jamila's Coins and Notes Collection blog, this is a modern iraqi coin from 1981. Here's a photo showing the front and back of that coin: I've found it on on Jamila's blog, with an overview of iraqi coins. There, it's described as follows: IRAQ - 10 Fils (Year 1981) (AH 1401) Description: Under President: Saddam Hussein (16 Jul 1979 - ...


18

Note As @Volker Siegel said in the comments: Do not try to clean them any further. Dirt and patina may reduce the value somewhat, but traces of cleaning much more so. I am certain this is a Spanish Real. The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century. It underwent several ...


16

This is an addition to Semaphore's answer: This is the 10 D-Mark note of the third edition of the Deutsche Mark, the Gemäldeserie BBk I (1961) (painting series). It was designed by the Swiss designer and artist Hermann Eidenbenz who was living in Hamburg, Germany. It was printed between 1961 and 1990. There are five printing runs which are mentioned under ...


15

The first coin doesn't have much detail to go by. But the second coin looks like it might have two soldiers standing with banners. Some Roman coins have that. Here's an example of a coin with Constantine I, c 334-335: There are a couple of pages with coin cleaning tips on the web. In short: toothpicks, toothbrushes, soap, and (distilled) water; gently, with ...


15

Article I of the U.S. Constitution states: Section 8. The Congress shall have power ... To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin .... Section 10. No state shall ...; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts, .... So as of the U.S. Constitution coming into force only the ...


13

Basically, the Pseudohistory Channel or whoever you heard this from is simply wrong. Rather than a gold standard, the framers of the US Constitution tried to introduce a bimetallic standard - that is, a monetary standard based on both gold and silver. The Constitution states: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters ...


13

This coin is from Nepal and belongs to King of Nepal Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and came in existence in Vikrami Samvat 2012 (Gregorian calendar-1955). letters inscribed are:- श्री महेन्द्र वीर विक्रम शाहदेव 2012. i.e in English Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev 2012 Coin Sri Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, Vikrami Samvat 2012 (Gregorian calendar-...


11

In principle, a coin is worth its value in precious metal, plus or minus what the locals think of the issuing authority. So an unknown silver coin weighing half an ounce would be worth 'half an ounce of silver in local coinage' less the expected costs of melting it down and re-coining. The Vikings, who didn't use coins as such, used 'hacksilver' as an ...


10

Gaykhatu Khan's paper money was visually similar to the contemporary Chinese notes. It was an oblong certificate, block printed on possibly papyrus or bark paper. The Islamic creed of Shahada was printed at the top, followed by Gaykhatu's name, as Irinjin Turji, in Arabic. The denomination was printed at the centre of the note, and encircled. Beneath this ...


10

Economic history's great attempt to produce a great price/wage series for Southern England's monasteries, agricultural labourers, and modern workers failed. It leaves us with the series used by Measuring Worth, but the series is untrustworthy: 1) Wage labour was not generalised until the 19th century, this makes "wages" and "prices" meaningless. 2) Series ...


10

The first set is a Japanese 10-yen banknote issued in 1946, during Allied occupation of Japan. The second set is a one peso banknote issued in 1943 in occupied Philippines by the Japanese government. The third set is a 1 shilling Oceanian Pound banknote issued in 1942, also by the Japanese government, and intended for use in various occupied British and ...


10

Would it not be more convenient to have all colonies use the same currency? Convenient for whom? Remember, this is an era (depending on exactly when we're talking) when crossing an ocean takes days, weeks, or months. Colonies are more concerned about trading with their neighbors than trading with their home country. For example, Canada will increasingly be ...


9

This does not refer to a Pound Sterling, or British Pound, but rather to the colonial currency of North Carolina, the North Carolina Pound. This was the official currency of North Carolina until the establishment of the United States Dollar in 1792, as a replacement for the Continental Dollar, and is apparently still legal tender in North Carolina to this ...


9

It would be inadequate if there weren't so much data collected over the centuries. The Roman Empire is a very well documented period. There are detailed price lists on what the Romans thought was essential, very similar to ours. There is also plenty of information on how much they had to pay for lodging; clothes; books; as well as horses, private houses, and ...


9

It is a Caesar denarius minted in 49 BC. This was the first type of coin Caesar had minted. The obverse is an elephant trampling a snake with CAESAR beneath. The reverse features the fetishes of the Pontifex Maximus, a title Caesar held at the time. See Roman Republican Coinage by Michael Crawford. Licence: Creative Commons Share Alike Attribution 2.5 - ...


8

The value of a currency at any time is measured by a figure called the Consumer Price Index: this takes into account the price of lots of different things and comes up with a single figure for that currency. This can then be compared between eg the dollar now and the pound now, or the pound now and the pound 5 years ago, or, a defunct currency. One way ...


8

First, it is important to understand that the economic system of ancient Mesopotamia was something much closer to a barter system than a modern market. Money did exist, but not in the fully standardized form we are used to today. Here is a relevant article which explains: Although Babylon had flourishing trading activity, Hammurabi did not come up with ...


8

From Wikipedia: In their oldest attested form, as used in the ancient Near and Middle East of the 8th century BCE onwards, bullae were hollow ball-like clay envelopes that contained other smaller tokens that identified the quantity and types of goods being recorded. In this form, bullae represent one of the earliest forms of specialization in the ancient ...


7

From 1516 to 1917 it was Ottoman money, named gold liran asmali. To be specific, from 1807 to 1918 they used a different Ottoman currency named tamashlik,onlic,sikwin. In 1914 when the Ottomans lost in WWI, French Liran gold became prevalent. In 1917/11/23 the British announced that Egyptian money was legal, as well as Ottoman, and any money from allies. ...


7

Note that for the time period of interest there was no single German state, as we are talking not only long before the German unification of the mid Nineteenth Century but also well before the simplification of German states that occurred during the Napoleonic period. Consequently: Up to that time [1871] several dozen independent German States and cities ...


7

Before the 1840s national currency was more or less non-existent, like the US dollar, was rare and only used in big northern cities, like Philadelphia and New York. Early dollars are so rare they are collectors items. In virtually all the states a local currency was used, which in North Carolina was called the "pound". Technically the pound was denominated ...


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