27

They are specifically Spanish 2 Escudo Doubloons minted between 1651 to 1773, or modern replicas - as they are identical, it would seem to suggest the latter. This Amazon seller 🕑 appears to have identical coins. [ Image from https://www.eaglegames.net/Empires-Age-of-Discovery-Metal-Coins-p/101617.htm, used with permission of Eagle Games.


26

The usual method was with a hammer and a cold chisel. A large stone would suffice as an anvil. Coins are fairly small and thin, and the silver coins of the period were quite soft, as you can see from the wear on the example in your picture. A blacksmith would be able to do this easily, as would almost anyone with basic metal-working skills and tools. ...


18

Note As @Volker Siegel said in the comments: Do not try to clean them any further. Dirt and patina may reduce the value somewhat, but traces of cleaning much more so. I am certain this is a Spanish Real. The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century. It underwent several ...


11

In 1922, the Soviet economy was suffering from high inflation and the government introduced a new gold-backed currency called Chervonets which was equivalent of the old Russian imperial gold coin of 10 roubles. Initially, chervonets was exchanged for 11,400 roubles. As the roubles and chervonets were both in circulation, every day, the State Bank published ...


8

From Wikipedia: In their oldest attested form, as used in the ancient Near and Middle East of the 8th century BCE onwards, bullae were hollow ball-like clay envelopes that contained other smaller tokens that identified the quantity and types of goods being recorded. In this form, bullae represent one of the earliest forms of specialization in the ancient ...


5

It's a stretch to say that the barter economy was "replaced" with a "cocoa bean economy". However, cocoa beans were certainly an important trade item, and appear to have taken on monetary functions in periods when the Mesoamerican economy became more commercialized. The article "Making money in Mesoamerica: Currency production and ...


5

The value of Confederate money, as a currency has not changed, since the issuer (Confederate States of America) no longer exists. Many tall tales exist on how the currency was used after the war. The most amusing one can be seen in episode 1 of the Beverly Hillbillies. What is true, is that many Confederate Bonds were horded (mainly in Europe) in the ...


4

Mark Johnson answered already (correctly) that Confederate Money has no value, but individual banknotes and coins (and bonds) can have value as collectors' items. This is, however, not due to Federal Authorities IGNORING Confederate Bonds or other claims - a coin or bill is also a claim against the issuer to accept it as payment. On the contrary, they made ...


3

The question, as asked, has no objective answer. The collector value of a Confederate banknote is not fixed by anything, and I doubt it is particularly consistent during any given year. Going from the general behaviour of collectables with no intrinsic utility, the price will depend very strongly on condition, quite probably varying by a factor of ten or ...


3

Your State Treasury Note is similar to the German Rentenmark, which was based on mortgaged public property up to a sum of 3.2 Billion Goldmarks. The State Bank Note was similar to the German Reichsmark, which was, theoretically, pegged to gold/US dollar. In theory an inflation of the Reichsmark would not effect the value of the Rentenmark, since the value of ...


2

1945? Wikipedia Says When the British regained control of Malaya after World War II, notes were issued in 1945 (dated 1941), in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 dollars. It isn't completely clear whether "issued for circulation" meant general public circulation for the highest value banknotes, but there is nothing said to the ...


2

In the Soviet Union, the idea was to make socialist distribution of income look more equal than it actually was. The mechanism was to create rubles of different value and pay different classes of people in different kinds of rubles. Rubles that were tied to "hard currency" such as dollars or gold, held their value better than "Soviet" ...


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