21

As the author of the CIA article, R. C. Jaggers, does not cite any sources, it is difficult to establish with certainty why he used the name 'Operation Salmon'. The most likely reason may be that Operation Salmon was an earlier designation for Operation Anthropoid (which raises the question as to why he preferred one over the other), but - amidst a fair ...


12

Curiously, after a bit of research I found this - a comment on the Amazon Kindle entry for the "book" The Assassination of Reinhard Heydrich Kindle Edition Make of it what you will, but possibly it is simply a CIA screw up, or at the very least by its author R.C.Jaggers. The commenter goes by the handle of Kallisto and writes: First of all, you can get ...


11

Retrospectively, the only answer to your question is: "because of poor grasp of the local political and cultural context". In the 1920s, dominant countries were organized on the notion of nation state. This was a relatively recent development; for instance, Germany had formally existed only for 50 years or so at that time. Other countries had turned into ...


11

There are several reasons that probably played together First, the Wagenburg was a device of asymmetric warfare, that proved effective when first used against Crusader and Holy Roman forces, that still mostly relied on heavily armed knights, and were arrogant enough to charge head-on. Later the asymmetry faded away as these tactics became more or less ...


10

Yes, Czechoslovak Legion did bring POWs during the evacuation. Details are available on the Czech Wikipedia page about the Czechoslovak Legion. Look at the section "Evakuace" and use Google Translate. Between 1919 and 1920, they sailed from Vladivostok to Trieste, Marseille, Cuxhaven, and Naples. The POWs who were transported included Hungarian, Austrian, ...


10

The Soviets and Czechs concluded a Mutual Assistance Pact in 1935, good for five years, until 1940. The Soviets proposed to honor that pact in 1938 during the Munich crisis. The "sticking point" was that the Soviet army would have had to cross the territory of Poland or Romania to reach Czechoslovakia. The Czechs declined to invoke the treaty or seek ...


8

During its entire history, Czechoslovakia had two anthems (or one anthem composed from two songs): the Czech song Kde domov můj and the Slovak song Nad Tatrou sa blýská. So, when Czechoslovakia broke up, the solution was simple: Czech Republic adopted Kde domov můj and Slovakia Nad Tatrou sa blýská as their anthems.


8

Apparently, yes. This site states (translation mine): Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs, St. Joachimsthal war damals Teil des ans Deutsche Reich angeschlossenen Sudetenlands, wurde in den Gruben Uran für Forschungszwecke der deutschen Wehrmacht abgebaut. "During World War II, St. Joachimsthal being part of the Sudetenland incorporated into the German Reich ...


7

You are conflating a bunch of different things. The creation of Poland and Czechoslovakia Poland was not a result of Germany's defeat in the Great War. When Russia signed the humiliating Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, one of Germany's demands was the creation of a sovereign Polish state out of a portion of the ceded lands. The Treaty of Versailles attributed a ...


7

Communism has always been buttressed by force. In Eastern Europe it was either actual Soviet troops (Germany-1953, Hungary-1956, Czechoslovakia-1968) or the imminent credible threat thereof (Poland-1980). Local troops has never been particularly reliable. You need to look at the context. Communism was crumbling everywhere. By 1989, Gorbachev made it clear ...


7

The USS Grant was just one of the vessels took 2-3 times the Czech Legion soldiers home. They passed several important ports including Shanghai, Hong Kong and Colombo. Mostly were shipping on the route Vladivostok-Shanghai-Hong Kong-Singapore-Colombo-Suez-Port Said-and finally arrived at Trieste, then they took the railway back to Prague. I am now writing ...


7

Indeed, as @TomAu has said, the evacuation of the Czechs (and Slovaks!) was handled by the US government, which also presumably paid for it. I found a Romanian article about Victor Cădere, a Romanian diplomat operating at the same time and place with a similar objective: evacuation of Romanian nationals. This article provides some valuable information: ...


6

These three maps clearly outline, in varying level of detail, the portions of Czechoslovakia that were annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938. As the definition of "Sudetenland" has almost no meaning apart from this annexation, they comprise a de facto meaning of the term. As illustrated below, the city of Plzen was just outside the boundaries of Sudetenland as ...


6

The apparent reason for the creation of these Slavic "multinational" states was to create states that were strong enough to act as "buffer states" against Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria (Germany's allies in World War I). Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania would, in fact go on to form the "Little Entente", with which France later formed an alliance. So ...


6

When Bangladesh became a separate country from Pakistan (transforming from East Pakistan into Bangladesh) they adopted a Bengali song written by Rabindranath Tagore in 1905, called "Shonar Bangala" (Golden Bengal). Since one of the reasons for the aspiration of a new nation was the Bengali language itself, this seemed to be the right thing to do. However, ...


5

The "CIA's secret report" by R. C. Jaggers reads like a "as told by" version of some primary document originating outside the CIA. The CIA of course did not exist in 1942, and its predecessor, the OSS, had nothing to do with the operation. So this report might be a version of an account appearing in the Czech press, or a memoir by a Czech official of some ...


5

This summarizes my since-deleted comments into a slightly more coherent form. It is only a partial answer to the originally posed question, and relies on the photographs the OP added after their original post. The uniform is Czech; the bearer was at some point an NCO. The cap badge has the overall shape of a tilted square containing a smaller square region,...


5

I wonder if it sheds any light on this decision if we compare the examples cited above with the one instance where the opposite happened- Galicia? Poles and Ukrainians were intermixed to a degree that would induce a headache in anyone trying to draw a "fair" borderEthnic Map of Poland (for the purposes of this discussion please consider "galicia" to be ...


4

In the title to your question you asked about what happens to countries that split up, but in the body of the question you ask also about countries that got united (or reunited) and specifically about Germany. Perhaps I can answer this part. After the second World War West Germany retained the old nationalist Deutschlandlied (“Deutschland, Deutschland über ...


4

Effective political lobbying and influence by political activists by the Czechs and the Yugoslav committee. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslav_Committee Both Yugoslav Committee and the Czech already had the ear of important people moving into the Paris conference.


4

I live in Plzeň and I am located in Plzeň and I assure you that no sensible force has ever considered Plzeň to be a town in the Sudetenland. The Sudetenland has two approximately but not completely equivalent definitions: the mountain ranges along the border of the Czech lands (you may see the nearly circular border of Bohemia from the satellites – which ...


4

Often enough, when a nation wants to separate there is enough animus to stop much yearning for the old anthems. In the American Civil War, the South quickly enough adopted songs like "Dixie" and "The Bonnie Blue Flag" as anthems. At the war's end, Lincoln said in public that we could now play Dixie as an anthem too because we had captured it.


4

No, Czech Republic was never a colony. After the Second World War, Czechoslovakia was a unitary country, there was no such thing as "the Czech Republic". In 1969, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was subdivided into the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic, which means Czechoslovakia became a federation. But being a member of a ...


3

I am not sure a total of arrests could be made short of writing a biography, but two particular cases can be found detailing charges. The first case is discussed on a site here: The regime couldn’t very well prosecute Havel for agreeing with it, so they officially charged him with smuggling documents out of Czechoslovakia that were published abroad – ...


3

This question is extremely interesting to me. It's been part of an ancestry research project of mine. My paternal family comes from the Sudetenland, but sadly, with the recent passing of my dad late last year, the last first hand source in my family is also silent. I will try and fill in this answer over time, which might be a bit unusual of an approach. ...


2

The Czechs were evacuated on mostly American ships, such as could be made available from time to time. Which is why many of them went through the Panama Canal. Some went through the Indian Ocean on British or even Japanese ships (Japan was an Ally in World War I, and co-operated with America in securing Vladivostok). This was a pet project of President ...


2

If you define Sudetenland as the parts of today's Czechia that were annexed by Germany in 1938, then no, Láz was not part of Sudetenland. According to Czech Wikipedia, Láz was part of: 1939 země česká, Oberlandrat Tábor, politický i soudní okres Příbram[7] 1942 země česká, Oberlandrat Praha, politický i soudní okres Příbram[8] Translation: ...


1

https://tankarchives.blogspot.com/2017/05/pzkpfw38t-prize-from-bohemia.html mentions that the 38t from the second production batch had 4 crew members, the first (much smaller) batch, in part vehicles repurposed from a canceled Czech order, had 3. This change seems to have been made pretty early in production, effectively after what we'd now call ...


1

The "Sudetenland" has two meanings, it might be used as a term for border regions of todays Czech Republic inhabited by (not only) German minority - and in this meaning it is mostly used, but strictly said, Sudetenland was only a region in northern Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic). The Germans that lived in these areas and in many "language ...


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