42

There have been several stages in the history of Canadian independence. Canada became a self-governing dominion within the British empire on 1 July 1867 when the British North America Act was passed by the UK Parliament. The Statute of Westminster, passed by the UK Parliament in 1931, acknowledged Canada as co-equal with the United Kingdom within the ...


18

The subject isn't nearly as simple as it is for the USA. The event in the 1980s was Patriation of the Canadian constitution, which removed the power of the UK parliament to amend the Canadian constitution with the consent of the Canadian government. This was done by the UK parliament, at the request of the Canadian parliament. That power had been retained ...


11

The short answer: The Guinea 'No' vote: Sekou Toure, who was by far the most influential figure in Guinea, campaigned for a 'no' vote. Others voting 'Yes': Almost all local political leaders had benefited from French patronage and thus tended not to favour a radical change in the relationship between France and the colonies. Detailed answer Many of the ...


10

This is more a comment than an answer, but I need the space: Significance of the "300.000 soldiers" data. Note that such a number does not mean that most of the population loved the colonization. People could have been enlisted by force, or just as a mean of living and escaping poverty. Even if they had enlisted voluntarely for their love of France, it ...


10

The Lesser Antilles are so fragmented because they were (collectively) colonized or captured by no less than eight different countries. Even today, some of them are colonies belonging to France, Britain, the United States, the Netherlands, and Venezuela. There are only eight sovereign states among them. Of these, Domenica was formerly French and Trinidad-...


9

By giving up Macau quietly, Portugal avoided an embarrassment similar to the one they experienced when India took Goa. More seriously, this was done as part of a treaty at a point in time where Portugal was carrying out a policy of de-colonization. Portugal basically offered to return Macao to China.


8

Your question appears to be based upon a false assumption: As far back as 1590, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum showed that the northern part of the New World was known as "America Mexicana" (Mexican America), as México City was the seat for the New Spain viceroyalty. New Spain is mistaken as the old name for México, rather than the name of a large of expanse ...


8

The short answer is yes, the British monarch was technically the Head of State for South West Africa (formerly Deutsch-Südwestafrika) from the grant of the Mandate by the League of Nations until South Africa became a republic on 31 May 1961. It's worth noting that South West Africa didn't become known as Namibia until the UN General Assembly changed the ...


8

Manuel Quezon had previously served as one of the Philippines' two resident (nonvoting) commissioners to the U.S. House of Representatives from 1909 to 1916. The provision for the nonvoting commissioners had been established by the Philippine Organic Act (1902) (the "Cooper Act") While in post as commissioner, Quezon had lobbied for the passage of the ...


6

Quezon didn't "convince" the US to release the Philippines. Instead, the US had always intended to grant the Philippines independence, once they were deemed fit for self-rule. The Americans viewed themselves as taking on the noble role of giving the Filipinos the education and experience necessary for independence. (Personally, I wouldn't compare the ...


5

No, one of the most difficult decisions Churchill had to make during the war was to stop economic preferential treatment of the colonies to get American Land Lease support. That preferential treatment was the cork on which the British empire floated. Without it, the empire could not be maintained. That's what happened - not very professionally - after the ...


5

On the contrary. Portugal started building Macau International Airport (very expensive) after the handover of Macau decision was already settled between Portugal and China (1987). https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macau_International_Airport https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Declaration_on_the_Question_of_Macau Even more, Portugal offered to withdraw ...


5

Mexica is the Nahuatl or "Aztec" name for the original group of "Aztecs." Over the course of several centuries, these "Mexicans" conquered the whole Central Valley of what we now call "Mexico," thereby creating the "Aztec" empire. "Mexica" is the core of this empire. The Spanish added chunks of modern Mexico (and central America) to the Aztec empire, which ...


4

I finally found this question addressed in Timothy Anna's Forging Mexico (Nebraska, 1998), pp. 36-40. Tenochtitlán dominated the center of Mesoamerica for a century before the arrival of Spaniards, who chose the same location for their own capital. In Mexico "the hegemony of the metropolitan, urban center existed all through the colonial period." Over time ...


4

Austrian here. My grandparents told me some stories about that time. And I read a lot about the Nazi period and denazification in Germany and Austria. Overall, the denazification process in Austria was similar to Germany. Of course, Nazi-symbols and scriptures were rigorously banned, and you could run into serious trouble for possessing them. All persons ...


3

Quezon's best argument for Philippine independence was his highly successful record, first as U.S. Commissioner, 1909-1916, then Philippine Senator (including Senate President), 1916-34, and finally Philippine Presidency (under U.S. oversight) from 1935 onward. After he and his peers did such a good job, no one could deny that the Philippines were ready for ...


3

No. After WW2, British empire was not financially capable of ruling its colonies such as India. As per the below article in BBC, The catastrophic British defeats in Europe and Asia between 1940 and 1942 destroyed its financial and economic independence, the real foundation of the imperial system. Even during WW2 the British had mobilised India's ...


2

It is difficult to give a definitive answer to such question. I can only tell you my experience. The university where I teach (in the US) has a lot of Indian students, and I discussed these questions with them. Of course they were born after the liberation. Many of them recognize the substantial contribution that the British made in the development of India. ...


2

I found a paper(.doc) from the University of Liepzig that studied colonial revenues in the British Empire in some detail. Looking over their data, it seems that nearly all parts of the empire were experiencing increasing revenues clear to the end (well..at least until WWII). However, what you do see at the end is that the revenue per capita actually ...


2

This question could probably warrant an article-length treatment and I have no relevant expertise, but here are a couple of leads. The Wikipedia article on the Algerian War has a heading about how the FLN mobilized international support during the period in question. It doesn't mention the Western European left per se, but provides some relevant context. It ...


2

To be fair.. Adolf Hitler is more responsible for Indian independence than Mahatma Gandhi in one point of view. Britain was bankrupt and had no resources to rule India as the 2,500,000 Indian Soldiers who returned to India had been promised that India would be independent if they fought for Britain. Britain couldn't afford to have another fight with India. ...


1

This question is dealt with in some detail by Ana Lucia Araujo in her book Reparations for Slavery and the Slave Trade: A Transnational and Comparative History, Bloomsbury, 2017, pp 84-88. Much of what follows is based on her research. tl; dr Q. How much of this was actually paid and when was the last payment made? Reparations totalling 90 million ...


1

The first law of institutions is that the survival of the institution dominates the mission of the institution. The second law of institutions is that change threatens the institution and must be suppressed. The question is probably too broad - each colonizing power had a different strategy for colonization, and will have a slightly different answer to the ...


1

First, let's take your example of the UK. Ireland, Wales, Scotland and England are close to each other. Egypt, while not "that" far, is still quite far from the rest of the UK. Canada is even worse. Sudan wouldn't be so far if Egypt was part of the UK but then... France has quite a lot of trouble to gather the votes from La Réunion and the other Dom-Tom, it ...


1

You'd want Marxist historiography. There is no teleology to Marxist historiography, as in that within the discipline of history. One of the issues with approaches to history which are historically materialist, ie which centre relations of production labour and social property, is that whether labourite anarchist or progressive the historiographies converge ...


1

No. World War II drained Britain of what little financial strength it had, after World War I, the 1920s, and 1930s. Britain began World II with enough gold reserves to pay for about $10 billion in military equipment from the U.S. These reserves were gone by 1941, and Britain received over $30 billion of Lend Lease aid from the U.S. to fight World War II. At ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible