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51

The abdication of King Edward VIII of United Kingdom in 1936 was achieved without any bloodshed and resulted in ascension and coronation of his brother George as King of the United Kingdom. Although legally an abdication there is no doubt that his hand was forced by Parliament as well as Prime Ministers of several Commonwealth dominions. On 16 November ...


48

Murad V, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 30 May to 31 August 1876 was deposed by the Ottoman cabinet on the grounds of insanity. The Grand Mufti (seyhulislam) issued a fetva justifying the act on grounds of insanity, which was supported by a medical statement signed by several Istanbul physicians declaring that it was unlikely that Murat could ever ...


47

The Despotate of the Morea, which was a province of the Byzantine Empire, looks like one of these at first glance, but it isn't. The words "Despot", "Tyrant" and "Dictator" have all changed their meanings over time. Despot was originally the highest rank of the court of the Byzantine Empire, bestowed on close relatives of the emperor (the modern concept of ...


40

In 1946, Italy held a referendum to change from being a kingdom to a republic. The last king of Italy, Umberto II, left the country peacefully to live the rest of his life abroad. He also absolved all the soldiers and other civil servants from their oath of fealty to the king.


32

Queen Elizabeth II has been deposed many times and I guess holds the record for the most times someone has been deposed (peaceful or not). This has happened many times when a former British colony became independent and, after a period of independence with the Queen as head of state, declared itself a republic with a president. Most of these did it ...


29

It started at least with the rule of Gaius Octavius, a.k.a. Augustus. He was a dictator (Imperator) but Rome was continued to be called republic, consuls and Senate continued to be "elected". But the supreme power became lifetime, and the Imperator appointed a heir, usually a real or adopted son. Since then, this is a custom in some dictatorships. The term ...


23

The official, factual side As unsatisfactory as that might sound @JMS is rightly focussing on first Göring and then Dönitz/Goebbels, although the later declined to survive so that Schwerin von Krosigk was stepped up. But that is really it, as this is most typical of a dictatorship that is based on the love of the people for that very person. This is ...


21

The names People's Republic (more common), Democratic Republic or Democratic People's Republic come from Marxist-Leninist ideology. The idea is that socialist states (they never claimed to have fully realized communism) serve the interest of the vast majority of the people, whereas traditional or bourgeois democracies are not really democratic and only serve ...


18

Augusto Pinochet, after 15 years as the dictator of Chile, stepped out of power because on the 5th October 1988 he lost a referendum with about 44% of votes and he accepted that result. Benito Mussolini fell from power after the Grand Council of Fascism passed a vote of no confidence on him. After that, he was dismissed by King Victor Emmanuel III.


16

The person that comes to mind is Getulio Vargas of Brazil. He first took power in 1930, in a military-backed coup, after being defeated in a Presidential race, ousting the outgoing President and President-elect. He ruled as a virtual dictator until 1945, at which time he was forced to step down from the Presidency, and allow democratic elections, because his ...


16

In the original sense of the term, Roman Dictators were magistrates of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty for up to 6 months. A few state heads used the title formally in the 19th century, before it got its negative connotation, and sometimes called their ...


15

The end of German Democratic Republic , a.k.a. East-Germany, was also quite peaceful. Prior to the German Reunification the GDR government applied some degree of oppression, yet the large-scale, peaceful protest made it quite hard to justify using force. In the end, the GDR held its only free election which brought a government into power that more or less ...


12

As you have correctly implied, you can NOT equate these terms. Among other reasons, because the first couple are economic systems and the latter are political. There are certain correllations and causations betwene them, however. Just as a note, your question is nearly impossible to answer for 4 reasons: You don't actually define what democracy or ...


12

Beria I think it would be extremely instructive to consider the anti-Beria coup. The conspirators discussed the plans in secret and Beria was arrested by Marshal Georgy Zhukov himself. This plan required an absolute devotion of participants since any leak to a Beria agent was deadly. This is why only high-level people were involved - a Marshal(!!) making an ...


12

Alfonso XIII of Spain, in 1931 On April 12, 1931, there were municipal elections. One year earlier, on January 28, 1930, the dictator Primo de Rivera resigned1. That dictatorship was a weird one, with the king Alfonso XIII below it. Thus, the king kept in power for a while (in a so called dictablanda2). This kept going until the municipal elections on April ...


11

Bavaria stands out here. Ludwig II, Otto I, Ludwig III all lost power quite peacefully.


10

The term people's republic was coined by the loyalist side in the Spanish civil war. It was intended to suggest a republic which would guarantee the welfare of all its citizens; their economic rights as well as political. It was adopted by the east European countries, as a supposed third way between bourgeois democracy and the dictatorship of the ...


10

In any election that is described as "unanimous", the winner achieved 100% of the vote. George Washington was unanimously elected twice (by the electoral college), and remains the only US president to have achieved this. In 2002, Saddam Hussein claimed to have achieved all 11 million votes in a single-candidate presidential election. Other examples can be ...


10

The preamble to the constitution of the People's Republic of China describes the state as being a "people's democratic dictatorship". Article 1 of the constitution repeats the claim.


9

What do you mean, 'legal mechanisms'? Putting "how tyrants hold power" and "legal or moral mechanism" in the same sentence is completely missing the point. Stalin didn't have power because being chairman of Politburo, but he was chairman of Politburo because he had power. I'm not completely sure, but I believe that legally the Politburo decisions actually ...


8

Without going back that long in time, you have got the Carnation Revolution in Portugal This is also interesting in the fact that the overthrow was led by the military.


8

Pedro II of Brazil, November 1889 There was only an injured person in the event. The only one wounded in the episode of the proclamation of the republic was the Baron of Ladario, minister of navy, who resisted the arrest warrant given by the mutineers and was shot. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proclamation_of_the_Republic_(Brazil)


8

Norway, 1905 From 1814 to 1905 Norway and Sweden were two kingdoms ruled by the same king. This king ruled from the Swedish capitol and many Norwegians were unhappy about the situation. The two countries had separate Parliaments. In June 1905 the Norwegian Parliament decided that enough was enough. Out with the king! In August there was a referendum ...


7

99.8 percent in Ethiopia. 100 percent, with 99.97 percent turnout in North Korea. The article explains the purpose of the NK elections, which includes accounting for defectors. Then there are cases where unopposed candidates run, even in generally democratic nations. Would you count that?


6

François "Papa Doc" Duvalier was confirmed as president for a further 6 years in the 1961 Haitian presidential referendum with 100% of the vote. The result was largely seen as fraudulent, as was the result of the 1964 referendum that made him president for life in which he "only" got 99.9% of the vote. In the 1994 Tunisian presidential election Zine El ...


6

What about Simeon II of Bulgaria? After WW2, he was exiled: On 15 September 1946, a referendum was held in the presence of the Soviet army. It resulted in a 97% approval for republic and abolition of the monarchy. On 16 September 1946, the royal family was exiled from Bulgaria. Simeon II has never signed any abdication papers—neither at that ...


6

The 1997-2006 flag (your third flag) is the first flag (1960-1963) of independent Congo, then known as Congo-Léopoldville. While it's true that it's design is reminiscent of the Belgian Congo flag, I imagine the symbolism of being the first flag of independent Congo was a major factor in choosing it over any other design. The 1963-1971 design (your first ...


6

Question: Had things gone his way, how did Hitler imagine his succession? Background: Health of Adolf Hitler Hitler's physical health has long been the topic of speculation. Physically Hitler suffered from tremors and irregular heartbeat during the last years of his life. Hitler's personal doctor Dr. Theodor Morell diagnosed him with ...


4

There are several safeguards against the Chancellor - or any other part of the government - acquiring too great powers. mart already mentioned Article 1, ang Gangnus mentioned the direct applicability, namely, Article 3. The core meaning of the first articles is: Human dignity is inviolable. The state should do everything in its power to honor and protect ...


4

I can offer some points of the constitution that I remebember beeing implemented esp. as a safeguard: "Human dignity shall be inviolable" (1.1 here) - is the first article, and is meant as a safeguard against legal torture, inhuman punishment and the like No use of the army in the interior Separation of police and secret services "The privacy of ...


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