50

The Treaty of Waitangi (1840) between the British and Maori chiefs of North Island, New Zealand This treaty has "long been the subject of debate". Wikipedia's Treaty of Waitangi article goes into these differences in some details, noting that: The most critical difference between the texts revolves around the interpretation of three Māori words: ...


42

Many examples throughout history but of the top of my head I can think of- The Treaty of Wuchale between Italy and Ethiopia, where in the Italian version Ethiopia became a vassal or protectorate, but in the Ethiopian version they were more allies with the rights and privileges of a sovereign independent nation like foreign relations. The supposed breaking ...


33

There are some misconceptions about what ratification means. Though it is now common for treaties to be ratified by a legislature, that has never been essential to the ratification process. In actuality, the reason for treaty ratification is that the negotiator doesn't always have the authority to bind the nation to a treaty. In most countries, historically,...


32

When a war starts, the diplomats lock down the embassy and leave through a neutral country. They are neither molested nor harassed, and their diplomatic immunity is not disputed. The embassy building and the property therein is taken care of by the neutral country representing the interests of the belligerent (or some other arrangements may be made). The ...


26

UN Resolution 242 demanding withdrawal from the occupied territories in Palestine after the 1967 war. Wikipedia entry The English text has a different emphasis on territories, some might fit, whereas the matching French text seems to imply all. Pay particular attention to Article 1, subpart i. Specifically, des territoires in French, would be better ...


22

The most famous one in France is le mot de Cambronne (Cambronne's word), supposedly uttered when he was surrounded with Napoleon's Old Guard in Waterloo, June the 18th, 1815: Colville insisted and ultimately Cambronne replied with one word: "Merde!" (literally, "Shit!", figuratively, "Go to hell!") This version of the reply became famous in its own right, ...


20

Several memoirs of the period suggest that the Berlin to Vienna journey very likely could be completed in 12 days or less. This matches up fairly closely to @Eugene's estimate of two weeks. However, one account suggests that someone with more limited resources and unexpected delays could easily take much more time. The route they [1,2,3,4] usually seem to ...


20

Short answer: points 4-6 were unreasonable to the point of being unacceptable, because they gave Vienna so much power over Serbia that it amounted to a forfeiture of Serbian independence. This isn't unique to the time period or Serbia. Countries generally are not happy to subjugate themselves to a hated enemy. Whether they could afford to resist is another ...


19

By not being a threat, and having no strategic benefit to either side worth fighting a professional army on excellent defensive terrain. Take a good at Switzerland and you'll notice one thing: mountains. Lots and lots of tall mountains. Mountains mean easily defended choke points. They mean peaks hiding guns and observers who can call down fire and ...


19

"No" or "Ohi" In Greece they celebrate "Ohi Day" or "No Day" to commemorate the day that Greek prime minister Ioannis Metaxas rejected the ultimatum made by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini on 28 October 1940 allegedly with a simple "No". Wikipedia reports that his actual reply was “Alors, c’est la guerre!” (...


19

They didn't. Wikipedia is misleading. In fact, Britain had set out with the intent of securing a cession in perpetuity (i.e. forever), and was negotiated down to a 99-year lease by the Chinese. [MacDonald's] instructions required him to secure another cession in perpetuity. What he negotiated was a 99-year lease: MacDonald was persuaded by imperial ...


18

Straight-line distance from Berlin to Vienna is 523 kilometers or 325 miles according to Wolfram Alpha. In a car traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour (ca. 88 km/h), total travel time would be 5 hours and 55 minutes. However, roads are not perfectly straight. According to Google Maps the shortest route is 678 km long and you would need at least ...


18

Casablanca is further from Tunis than London is from Berlin. Would you have regarded London in January 1943 as safe enough? The Vichy French had switched sides easily enough a two months earlier, so there was no realistic sense of domestic trouble in Casablanca, or French NW Africa. The premise that that German attack at the Kasserine Pass might have thrown ...


17

The salaries stopped as soon as Flensburg government was dissolved. The officials and technical personnel went on with their lives - found other jobs, went home or emigrated. The buildings lay fallow (the occupying powers being jointly responsible for their maintenance) until the Bundesrepublik & DDR were proclaimed in 1949, at what time they were turned ...


16

By naming Russian mobilisation as the initial aggression. One needs to look no further than the German declaration of war itself. That document succinctly laid out Berlin's position that the Russian mobilisation was an existential threat as well as an act of aggression towards Germany. Presenting Germany as a peaceful mediator, it claims that: [Russia] ...


16

I wouldn't read too much into it. Kneeling with one leg during a military briefing is quite common for all army ranks when you are close to a combat zone. In my time as an army officer I have been kneeling a lot like that in combat training. It becomes a habit even if you are outside a combat training zone. In a photo of the same situation, probably taken ...


15

They were paid a regular salary and given an "expense account" of sorts. At least, the higher ranking representatives of the United States were. While this was probably not a very adequate amount, American ministers were definitely not expected to pay for everything out of their own pockets. Early United States ambassadors were paid around $2,500, while ...


15

Maybe not an ultimatum, but the British general Charles Napier is reputed to have replied "Peccavi" (latin for "I have sinned") after accidentally conquering the Indian region of 'Sindh' when he discovered belated orders telling him not to.


15

First Nations in Canada didn't really understand what they were signing for Treaty 6. The reference for this is (I quoted a bit below) An important factor was the cultural and language differences between the First Nations and Europeans this led to misinterpretations between the two groups. While the government representatives “were the products of ...


14

Well, by Nixon's own standard, his implementation of it certainly wasn't very effective. As quoted by his chief of staff: I call it the Madman Theory, Bob. I want the North Vietnamese to believe I've reached the point where I might do anything to stop the war. We'll just slip the word to them that, "for God's sake, you know Nixon is obsessed about ...


13

An incident leading to the First Opium War comes to mind. The setting is China in the late 1700s. European traders want free trade with China, but China has restricted them to a single port: Canton. Long story short, the British wanted Chinese tea, lots and lots of tea! This meant a lot of British hard currency was going to China in exchange for their tea. ...


13

One example would seem to be the 1867 treaty by which the United States purchased Alaska from Russia. The issues that arose are described Michael Byers and James Baker by in their book International Law and the Arctic. The border between the two countries was to be in the Bering Sea and Bering Strait. However, as Byers and Baker observe: ... the 1867 ...


12

Alice Roosevelt was a wild young woman who smoked and drank as the "First Daughter." Teddy Roosevelt sent her with Taft to Asia as a version of the "grand tour" that the daughters of most wealthy families were given in those days to complete their education. (Except that hers was to Asia, which Roosevelt saw as an up-and-coming global flash point rather than ...


12

Another angle would be that a treaty text is in just one language, but held ambiguous, on purpose, and the explanation of content presented to one party made unambiguous, and misleading on purpose, only for the deceiving party later to enforce pacta sunt servanda on one interpretation, claiming that there never was any ambiguity. That may happen even today ...


11

Using ORBIS which reconstructs travel through the Roman Empire circa 200CE as a basis, a fast carriage across ~700kms (I chose Naples to Verona) would have taken about 10 days. A horse relay team between the same cities only took 3.6 days to cover 763 kms. One could use these numbers as a rule of thumb for all pre-industrial travel on decent roads. That ...


11

It is indeed unfortunate that the influence of Morocco (and nearby countries of the Maghreb) on the early history of the United States was overlooked, because it was overshadowed by even larger events. As the questioner points out, the Treaty of Marrakesh opened the ports of Morocco to the 13 colonies, and was a form of diplomatic recognition, basically the ...


10

One answer would be that a military "contingency plan" of sorts was written into Fall Weiß itself - the operational plan for the invasion of Poland was written so as to begin no later than September 1st, 1939. However, it is probably very unlikely that the invasion of Poland would have been canceled if Treaty of Non-aggression hadn't been signed prior to ...


10

Until recently (by historical standards, anyway) a passport or passports was just another term for safe-conduct papers. Oftentimes it was just a sheet of paper written, signed and stamped by someone in authority, saying that such-and-such (sometimes just "the bearer of this") could pass through some kind of check-point. Now and then a plus-one would be ...


10

they were not killed or sold into slavery unless a breach of loyality occured. That would end Caesars ability to hold the givers in sway through them, and enrage the gauls (hostages were demanded to ensure peace) Scanning over the Commentari I have found numerous examples when gallic tribes sent mutually hostages into each others keeping when they made ...


9

I think that the answer, such as it is, is to be found in Churchill’s own account, ‘Triumph and Tragedy’, published in 1953. Background: By early 1944, the British were concerned about Russian post-war policy in the East. British policy was based on the assumption that post-war cooperation with the USSR in Europe was possible and desirable. In January, ...


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