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51

Theoretically, wars are still supposed to be declared. To quote the Hague Convention III of 1907: The Contracting Powers recognize that hostilities between themselves must not commence without previous and explicit warning, in the form either of a reasoned declaration of war or of an ultimatum with conditional declaration of war. However, after searching ...


49

The Treaty of Waitangi (1840) between the British and Maori chiefs of North Island, New Zealand This treaty has "long been the subject of debate". Wikipedia's Treaty of Waitangi article goes into these differences in some details, noting that: The most critical difference between the texts revolves around the interpretation of three Māori words: ...


42

Many examples throughout history but of the top of my head I can think of- The Treaty of Wuchale between Italy and Ethiopia, where in the Italian version Ethiopia became a vassal or protectorate, but in the Ethiopian version they were more allies with the rights and privileges of a sovereign independent nation like foreign relations. The supposed breaking ...


33

There are some misconceptions about what ratification means. Though it is now common for treaties to be ratified by a legislature, that has never been essential to the ratification process. In actuality, the reason for treaty ratification is that the negotiator doesn't always have the authority to bind the nation to a treaty. In most countries, historically,...


31

When a war starts, the diplomats lock down the embassy and leave through a neutral country. They are neither molested nor harassed, and their diplomatic immunity is not disputed. The embassy building and the property therein is taken care of by the neutral country representing the interests of the belligerent (or some other arrangements may be made). The ...


28

It's unclear if you mean whether it was (1) a ruse by Wilson against the American public, or (2) Germany against the USA, or (3) Germany against Mexico, or (4) British against USA? As far as being a ruse by Wilson (e.g. he made up the telegram to present to Congress), this can likely be discounted since there is documentary evidence - in 2005, an original ...


26

UN Resolution 242 demanding withdrawal from the occupied territories in Palestine after the 1967 war. Wikipedia entry The English text has a different emphasis on territories, some might fit, whereas the matching French text seems to imply all. Pay particular attention to Article 1, subpart i. Specifically, des territoires in French, would be better ...


22

The most famous one in France is le mot de Cambronne (Cambronne's word), supposedly uttered when he was surrounded with Napoleon's Old Guard in Waterloo, June the 18th, 1815: Colville insisted and ultimately Cambronne replied with one word: "Merde!" (literally, "Shit!", figuratively, "Go to hell!") This version of the reply became famous in its own right, ...


20

There are few direct benefits of Commonwealth membership and some debate about its usefulness, so the question is a fair one. Mozambique gained neither trade nor aid by virtue of membership. I expect that the question would be addressed definitively in The Commonwealth Brand: Global Voice, Local Action by Victoria Te Velde (Ashgate, 2011) and in the SADC's ...


20

The best known example is the Iran Hostage Crisis of 1979-1981. The people who entered and took over the US embassy in Tehran were not officially representatives of the Iranian government, but it's clear enough that they had government support; at the very least, the government did nothing (that I know of) to encourage them to leave. The result was a ...


20

Wikipedia has a pretty comprehensive list of the names used for the Ottoman Empire at different periods and in various languages. At the end of the article there's also a chronological list of links to historic maps using the alternative names of the Ottoman Empire. Since you are mostly interested in diplomacy and official writing, I also looked for a few ...


20

Short answer: points 4-6 were unreasonable to the point of being unacceptable, because they gave Vienna so much power over Serbia that it amounted to a forfeiture of Serbian independence. This isn't unique to the time period or Serbia. Countries generally are not happy to subjugate themselves to a hated enemy. Whether they could afford to resist is another ...


19

Several memoirs of the period suggest that the Berlin to Vienna journey very likely could be completed in 12 days or less. This matches up fairly closely to @Eugene's estimate of two weeks. However, one account suggests that someone with more limited resources and unexpected delays could easily take much more time. The route they [1,2,3,4] usually seem to ...


18

"No" or "Ohi" In Greece they celebrate "Ohi Day" or "No Day" to commemorate the day that Greek prime minister Ioannis Metaxas rejected the ultimatum made by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini on 28 October 1940 allegedly with a simple "No". Wikipedia reports that his actual reply was “Alors, c’est la guerre!” (so this is war!). References: https://www....


17

Straight-line distance from Berlin to Vienna is 523 kilometers or 325 miles according to Wolfram Alpha. In a car traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour (ca. 88 km/h), total travel time would be 5 hours and 55 minutes. However, roads are not perfectly straight. According to Google Maps the shortest route is 678 km long and you would need at least ...


17

The salaries stopped as soon as Flensburg government was dissolved. The officials and technical personnel went on with their lives - found other jobs, went home or emigrated. The buildings lay fallow (the occupying powers being jointly responsible for their maintenance) until the Bundesrepublik & DDR were proclaimed in 1949, at what time they were turned ...


17

By not being a threat, and having no strategic benefit to either side worth fighting a professional army on excellent defensive terrain. Take a good at Switzerland and you'll notice one thing: mountains. Lots and lots of tall mountains. Mountains mean easily defended choke points. They mean peaks hiding guns and observers who can call down fire and ...


16

Casablanca is further from Tunis than London is from Berlin. Would you have regarded London in January 1943 as safe enough? The Vichy French had switched sides easily enough a two months earlier, so there was no realistic sense of domestic trouble in Casablanca, or French NW Africa. The premise that that German attack at the Kasserine Pass might have thrown ...


16

I wouldn't read too much into it. Kneeling with one leg during a military briefing is quite common for all army ranks when you are close to a combat zone. In my time as an army officer I have been kneeling a lot like that in combat training. It becomes a habit even if you are outside a combat training zone. In a photo of the same situation, probably taken ...


15

They were paid a regular salary and given an "expense account" of sorts. At least, the higher ranking representatives of the United States were. While this was probably not a very adequate amount, American ministers were definitely not expected to pay for everything out of their own pockets. Early United States ambassadors were paid around $2,500, while ...


15

By naming Russian mobilisation as the initial aggression. One needs to look no further than the German declaration of war itself. That document succinctly laid out Berlin's position that the Russian mobilisation was an existential threat as well as an act of aggression towards Germany. Presenting Germany as a peaceful mediator, it claims that: [Russia] ...


15

Maybe not an ultimatum, but the British general Charles Napier is reputed to have replied "Peccavi" (latin for "I have sinned") after accidentally conquering the Indian region of 'Sindh' when he discovered belated orders telling him not to.


14

This letter from John Adams to John Jay makes no mention of any "back turning" incident. This website talks about how King George III eventually accepted John Adams, and claims that King George III acted in the following manner: He behaved with dignity during the interview, though he showed that he was affected by it, and assured the minister that as he ‘...


14

In "Ptolemy's map of Ireland: a modern decoding,"* R. Darcy and William Flynn discuss Claudius Ptolemy's Geographia, a map (among many other things) mentioning what is believed to be Ireland, dating back to the early second century. Wiki says 140 AD but I could find no other source to corroborate that claim-- but logic suggests Ptolemy made Geographia in his ...


14

First Nations in Canada didn't really understand what they were signing for Treaty 6. The reference for this is (I quoted a bit below) An important factor was the cultural and language differences between the First Nations and Europeans this led to misinterpretations between the two groups. While the government representatives “were the products of ...


13

Another angle would be that a treaty text is in just one language, but held ambiguous, on purpose, and the explanation of content presented to one party made unambiguous, and misleading on purpose, only for the deceiving party later to enforce pacta sunt servanda on one interpretation, claiming that there never was any ambiguity. That may happen even ...


12

In fact formal declaration of war in many countries brings many practical legal consequences, which may include: imposition of martial law extraordinary powers for the head of state ban on political parties and political activities as well as strikes limitation of rights of foreign nationals, especially those of the enemy state These consequences are not ...


12

Short answer: No Long answer: No. There were no treaties imposed on Germany in the way that the Treaty of Versailles was thrust upon Germany after WWI. As Drux mentioned in his answer Germany was divided among the quadripartite nations (United States, Russia, Great Britain, France) each governed a portion of Germany. The Potsdam Conference was where the ...


12

First of all, seeing as to how more than one SE user has questioned the seriousness of the Cuban missile crisis, let me try to outline how tense things were at the time. The Cuban missile crisis is the only time ever that any section of the US military has mobilised to DEFCON 2. The erstwhile SAC was at DEFCON 2 while the rest of the armed forces were at ...


12

Alice Roosevelt was a wild young woman who smoked and drank as the "First Daughter." Teddy Roosevelt sent her with Taft to Asia as a version of the "grand tour" that the daughters of most wealthy families were given in those days to complete their education. (Except that hers was to Asia, which Roosevelt saw as an up-and-coming global flash point rather than ...


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