36

Recognition of independence is different from de facto independence. While the Dutch Republic was officially recognised as independent only in 1648, it was actually founded 80 years earlier by the Union of Utrecht of 1579. The Dutch provinces were largely autonomous even before they entered into open revolt, but the treaty laid down a constitutional ...


16

According to Wikipedia, this is the naval flag of the Netherlands' Secretary of Defense. This flag would be flown on a ship that the Dutch Secretary of Defense is using as a headquarters (also referred to as a flagship). This type of flag is known as a rank flag.


14

To fill out JK's answer: the VOC directly controlled very little except the shipping routes to Amsterdam (and a few other Dutch ports, but the majority of goods arrived at Amsterdam). Indirectly, through deals and influence at the local courts of the rulers of the islands, they controlled far more. By supplying those rulers with weapons, advisors, European ...


11

Te VOC was not interested in control of people or land, but trade. For example nutmeg; the dutch burned every bit of it except on an island of 1 square km so they could control all of it. IIRC the value would go from 1 in Indonesia to 50000 in Amsterdam. The VOC was the single most profitable company in history (according to my prof.). A journey would take a ...


11

It was basically a business decision. The Dutch West India Company had a large financial stake in the success of the colony, and ensuring that new settlers were treated with "moderation" was seen as necessary. The official response of The Dutch West India Company was the following letter signed by Abraham Wilmandone and David Von Baerle on April 16th, 1663:...


11

Following up on Tom's answer, there is actually a reason there was a large white minority in South Africa, but not in India. The Bantu peoples (of which most living native South Africans are descendents) spread across most of Sub-Saharan Africa in large part due to having an agricultural package that worked well for that tropical climate. In particular, ...


10

First of all, both India and South Africa became free of Britain, shortly after World War II, India in 1947, and South Africa in 1948. Your question appears to be, why didn't "indigenous" people in South Africa become free at the same time as the Indians. The answer is that there was a large white minority in South Africa (about 25% of the population) in ...


10

The reason was colonialism and trade rights. For this same reason, the Dutch had already sent a ship in 1902, along Britain, Germany and Italy. In 1908, a second Venezuelan crisis occurred. Economic tensions with the United States escalated, in part from still unresolved issues involving the New York & Bermúdez Company. The gunboat Tacoma was sent ...


9

The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, or VoC) was actually founded by the States General of the Netherlands. The States General themselves date back to the 15th century. The right of the States General to convene on their own initiative had been recognised in 1477 by Mary of Burgundy. In the early stages of the Dutch Revolt, the ...


9

I think you can find a lot of information on the Wikipedia link you have provided, especially when you start checking out the resources on separate events during that time. But, when looking for the conditions Peter Stuyvesant encountered before he came to North America you should look into the colony known as "New Netherland". A hostile place with ...


8

The Dutch lost control of the seas in spite of, not because of, their "juridical" strengths. They had a different, more enlightened view of the "Law of the Sea", which they were ultimately unable to "enforce" against stronger countries. Specifically, Dutch philosophers such as Grotius, called for "open" seas for all countries, and thereby equal (commercial) ...


8

SHORT ANSWER In 1901, there were two higher education institutes but neither was, at the time, truly comparable to Dutch universities. The first genuine university-level education was not available until 1920, the shortage of trained professionals having become apparent during WWI. DETAILED ANSWER Prior to 1800, the education system was in the hands of ...


8

Yes, but this was a lot more complicated than in the Netherlands. During the war, the Dutch colonial government-in-exile in Australia founded the Temporal court-martials, who were tasked with persecuting war criminals and collaborators. The courts started their work as soon as the Dutch regained control over Indonesia and worked until the end of 1949. The ...


6

This Wikipedia article shows the results of the 1930 Dutch East Indies census (in the Social History section), listing 240,417 Europeans out of a total population of over 60.7MM. Calculating this as 0.4% European (with an additional 2.2%, or 1.35MM, Chinese and other foreign orientals), the European population was outnumbered 250-1 and the non-indigenous ...


6

You'll essentially find a book-length answer to this question in Dutch Ships in Tropical Waters by Robert Parthesius (2010, Amsterdam University Press). Here's a key table (p. 90), showing that the VOC had 328 ships in use c. 1650-1660, and had steadily brought over 1000 into service since the end of the sixteenth century.


6

The following is sourced from a short magazine article 'Fall of the Dutch East Indies', by Lt.-Commander F.C. van Oosten, and doesn't fully address all aspects of the question, but is intended to provide a little more information on the events preceding the Battle of the Java Sea, in the hope of shedding some further light on decision making. On February 3 ...


5

I'm inclined to write an answer with a different tone to that of the other one: namely, the Dutch never had control of the seas and as such they couldn't lose it. The strategic options that a naval power has include the control of the seas, denying the seas to the enemy, or, in essence, fighting on an equal footing (i.e., not using overpowering numbers to ...


5

Just to add a little to explain the points in your question: what the "unfriendly acts" were: In March it seems he seized a Dutch vessel carrying official correspondence from the Governor of Curacoa to the dependent island of Aruba. Intercepted the correspondence and imprisoned the crew and now he has handed his passports to M. de Reus the Dutch ...


5

De jure? No. The Republic of the United Netherlands became officially independent in 1648 at the Peace of Munster. De facto? Yes. The VOC was formed just before the 12 Year Truce, in which Spain acknowledged informal independence but not formal. One of the reasons for this 12 year truce was precisely the VOC. Both parties realized the revolt was ...


5

No. And the reason was that the founding of the Dutch East Indies Company was part of the fight for independence. In 1580, Portugal had become subject to the Spanish king in a so-called "personal union." (That is, Portugal and Spain were rule separately by the same ruler.) What had been a rivalry in modern Indonesia between Portuguese and Dutch became part ...


4

In the first half of the 19th century various fur companies trapped and traded with Indians in the US west. I am not familiar with with the various companies but the companies were probably chartered, if at all, in various states of the United States instead of being chartered by the federal government. For example, the partnership of Bent, St Vrain & ...


4

France was just being a good ally. A number of formerly Dutch holdings had been captured by Britain, and recaptured by France, who turned these islands back to the Dutch. France had been worried about the Anglo-Dutch alliance since at least the end of the 17th century. This was the first time that the Dutch allied with France against England, rather than ...


3

  Chinese were technologically inferior but did drive Dutch back using superior numbers and acquired European technology It could be said that main Chinese ship type at the time was junk, which could used both for trade and military purposes. Dutch had ships with much better sailing characteristics, and although gunpowder was Chinese invention at ...


1

My intention is to accept this linked answer, but to have supporting evidence and further information provided in this one based on research and investigations done after I was pointed in the right direction. Overview My narrative is based on 'Defeat in ABDA' except where otherwise noted. Doorman and Helfrich met, or at least talked, several times in the ...


1

The Japanese, unlike the Germans, did not use locals to run the country. They replaced the entire system of government with their own, installed (supposedly, in effect chosen based on them not being Dutch) "natives" in junior roles. So there were no local police, clerks, etc. etc. who could be charged with collaborating with the enemy. They also rounded up ...


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