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13

There is a very questionable assumption here that it was "easy" for West Germany or any other European country to quickly regain their positions among the world's leading industrial powers. It is by no means clear that this would have been accomplished without the United States' strategic decision and practical capacity to invest heavily in the Marshall Plan ...


11

I'd pick Argentina in the run-up to the Great Depression: During the first three decades of the 20th century, Argentina outgrew Canada and Australia in population, total income, and per capita income. By 1913, Argentina was the world's 10th wealthiest state per capita. Beginning in the 1930s, however, the Argentine economy deteriorated notably. The ...


10

The article cited by Pieter Geerkens asserts that all the bonds issues were oversubscribed, and this is backed up by this other source. Wikipedia here and here, Investopedia and the Museum of American Finance all broadly agree with this, but with qualifications on the first issue especially. This answer therefore deals primarily with the first issue of ...


10

In principle, a coin is worth its value in precious metal, plus or minus what the locals think of the issuing authority. So an unknown silver coin weighing half an ounce would be worth 'half an ounce of silver in local coinage' less the expected costs of melting it down and re-coining. The Vikings, who didn't use coins as such, used 'hacksilver' as an ...


9

I found this quote: “Based on the preceding calculations, a family of five would require an estimated 200 ha of habitat from which to gather animal and plant food. This estimate is based on an ideal ecosystem, one containing those wild plants and animals that are most suitable for human consumption. Researchers report that, in fact, modern-day hunter-...


9

This question is too broad, but I'll give you some avenues of research. Note all the countries you use as examples mention were puppet states and colonies right up until, and a bit after, WW2. Iraq and Libya were carved from former Ottoman states, and the Ottoman Empire was not known for its efficiency. These territories were seized by the Allies after WW1 ...


8

Germany Germany's international trade was largely restricted to overland routes due to the allied blockade. In 1942, Germany's main exports consisted of engineering products, metals and fuels. In addition to trading with the countries it occupied, Germany imported tungsten from Spain and chromite from Turkey. Due to the Skagerrak blockade (pdf), Sweden ...


7

Question: All things being equal (population, years of opportunity, sold bond value adjusted for inflation to 2018 dollars), and with similar marketing strategies in both wars to sell the bonds, what contributed to the higher participation rates and higher dollar contributions per capita in WWII over that of WWI? Has there been an historical analysis of ...


7

I cannot give you a definitive answer, but I think some of the general ideas are flawed: Starting point: You should not understimate the differences at the beginning of the 20th century between Spain and Portugal in one side and France, the UK and Germany in the other. War is only destruction: Yes, there is a lot of destruction in a war. But it also gives ...


7

A quick search for the term: Gebrochener Preis (Psychological pricing), including some Bachelor papers, does not mention pre-war usage in Germany at all. One would have to go through newspaper archives to see how prices were displayed at the time. The author of your quote seems to have produced quite a lot of articles in the few years. Since he quotes ...


6

This is a site about History, so I'll try to offer an answer based on the history of the debate around Britain's membership of the European Community (EC) / European Union (EU). It's a very complicated subject, so even the very brief overview I present here is going to be a longish read. tl; dr The idea of a referendum on 'Brexit' originated with the ...


6

The terms "developed", "underdeveloped" and "developing" are essentially political labels, and very much a question of perspective, i.e. Eurocentric. Much of the policy or debates surrounding these terms lack proper context of local societies and views "progress" (and development) in terms of material wealth (e.g GDP). This is probably not the answer, nor ...


6

Marco Polo was, famously, amazed when he first encountered paper currency during his travels. In this respect he started a long tradition -- why would anyone accept this rather than something tangible like metal. The Khans, it should be noted in passing, solved that problem by sentencing those who refused it to death. Modern states solve the same problem by ...


6

The practical reason for .95 or .99 pricing isn't psychological manipulation of the customers at all. That might work on some people, but not many. It actually came into use to combat thefts by retail staff, in the days where most payments were in cash. If the Nazis abolished it, the effects of "Aryan pricing" would have been to make theft and corruption ...


5

The UK joined the European Economic Community on 1st January 1973. This became the European Union in 1993. The decision to join the EEC was controversial at the time and the desire to reverse that decision never went away. In a sense then, nobody came up with the idea of Brexit, as if it were a new idea previously not thought of. It is an idea that never ...


5

Yes, they needed trade and did trade. In 1939-41 Germany traded with USA and Soviet Union, which were neutral at that time. During the rest of the war it traded with Sweden and other neutral countries (Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Switzerland, Ireland etc.)


5

We could start with Wikipeda "The most notable sign of improving relations during the Great Rapprochement was Britain's actions during the Spanish–American War (started 1898). Initially Britain supported the Spanish Empire and its colonial rule over Cuba, since the perceived threat of American occupation and a territorial acquisition of Cuba by the ...


5

The question could use some clarity, but is not unreasonable. In fact, a book was written pretty much on this subject. The Wages of Destruction. Haven't read it, plan to. As a 50-ish French guy, no, it wasn't uncommon to hear older French people say something like "well, he was batshit evil but did fix their unemployment". By people who were not in ...


4

Indeed the reasons are Oil In Liquid (oil) form: but the Iranian incident wasn't a reason for skyrocketing oil prices. For long anyway. But that is just the kicker, as Indonesia was an oil exporting nation! High prices for oil would have benefited the trade balance of that country: Src: Statista: Average annual OPEC crude oil price from 1960 to 2018 ...


4

According to this source (page 70), the shares of labor devoted to "industry" in the U.S. economy were 11.9% in 1800, 14.9% in 1810, 19.0% in 1820, and 20.0% in 1830, with the remainder devoted to agriculture. '"Industrialization" was only getting started in the first half of the 19th century, but picked up greatly in the second half.


4

Agricultural output went down during the early middle ages in Italy. According to data from Maddison database, Italy GDP per capita was 805 on year 1, while it was 450 on year 1000. Population went down from 8 million to 5 million, while GDP was 6.475 on year 1, and 2.250 on year 1000. Since agriculture is a vast ammount of GDP during early middle ages, ...


4

This is probably far too late to be of use to you, but may help others in the future. To expand on another answer, many US telephone directories did indeed have lists of long-distance charges from their local network. For example, this extract is from the May 1920 edition of the New York City (including all boroughs) Telephone Directory: with the ...


4

Because they were dictatorships Both of those countries were repressive dictatorships until quite recently. 1976 in Portugal's case, and Spain redemocratized during 1975-78. That's recent enough that I remember watching Saturday Night Live Weekend Update skits about both as they were happening. It's not impossible for that kind of government to produce ...


4

No-one, because you don't go blabbing to people how you did it! E.g. some people think the Voynich manuscript is coded version of someone's attempt. Isaac Newton wrote about his intermediate steps, one of which was called 'the green lion'. What did that mean? Who knows! But we can deduce that since he was so secretive about his rrsearch, if it had been ...


4

The Ottoman Empire was highly developed in the 16th century and pretty backward by 1850. This was not primarily the result of wars, but of the world passing it by.


4

Many point to improvements in Germany's economy that took place under Hitler prior to WW2. That's debatable. Some improvements were made, but generally speaking he overspend massively based on a complete lack of economic knowledge. That overspending doesn't have to become a problem, and can revive a bad economy. But you HAVE to pay it back. His programs ...


3

You need educated population, industrial and technological base, and resources First condition is simple to understand - you need engineers and qualified workers for your industry, the more the better. Germany is good example for this - although they lost both world wars, German educational system (with foundations laid down in 18th century) produced some ...


3

It started with the people. Eurosceptics have always been around in the UK, but you can probably make the case that the Maastricht treaty is what ignited the long sequence of campaigns and events that eventually led Cameron to promise and organize the Brexit referendum. (The wiki article has a fairly good summary of the latter.) Basically, in 1991 a group ...


3

I'm not a historian and have no expertise on California, but overall it seems that neither of these regimes would have had much capacity to impose taxes in Alta California. In theory, according to a Wikipedia article, there were import tarriffs and a tithe or land tax called the diezmo: Since the government depended on import tariffs (also called Custom ...


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