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4

Firstly, this greatly depends on how the GDP was back-calculated for those times. This is a difficult task as I've described elsewhere here. For reference, I've copied in the table for a quick comparison between "Finland" and "Russia" between 1830 and 1913 as given on the OP's link under "Europe 1830–1938 (Bairoch)": I quickly ...


4

Carpets are a status symbol. They are very costly to manufacture and their purpose (keeping the floor warm) can be easily achieved by much cheaper materials, such as wood or (in nomadic societies) felt or animal skins. Persian carpets of today are often made by Afghan peasants who earn almost nothing and still the carpets easily cost several thousand dollars....


3

Honestly, this question kind of surprises me. The U.S. is currently one of the richest countries in the world, so I'm not sure why it would be surprising that this was also true in the past. Spencer's answer answers the posed question in terms of nominal GDP/capita, but that ignores purchasing power (i.e. relative currency values and what actual goods and ...


3

1990 (overtaken by Luxembourg in 1991). Or 2001 (overtaken by Ireland in 2002) if we exclude oil states and countries with population under 1M. Or now if we exclude oil states and countries with population under 10M (the US overtook the UK in 1871 and has been #1 ever since). Source: Angus Maddison Project (2018) dataset, variable cgdppc ("Real GDP per ...


16

Using your criteria, and following this Wikipedia article, which uses World Bank estimates, that was 1973, the year of the Arab oil embargo following the Yom Kippur war. The United Arab Emirates was formed in 1971, and when the World Bank started reporting this statistic for that country, it immediately occupied the top spot, with a GDP per capita of $7445 ...


1

There are massive bibliographies about the VOC alone (and countless other major companies), about international corporate governance, company law, the history of cooperatives and so on. I'm not aware of any historian who has tried to generalize about all of this for the modern period as a whole. Whether such a task is possible in any meaningful way is not ...


2

I can't find a direct answer to your question, but here are some related data points and references that I hope will be helpful. First some caveats to how the question is framed here. 1) The raw number for one year wouldn't tell us much, nor the proportion of the total population; we should be much more interested in knowing the proportion by which it fell ...


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