66

First, a few general observations: The time period covered here is more than 3,000 years and we know very little about many of the Pharaohs. Also, there were different scripts which evolved over time and one has to consider that a pharaoh may well not know the language used by scribes for international diplomatic communication. This would appear to be the ...


56

SHORT ANSWER Spanish policy was rooted in the tradition of setting up universities in conquered territories, accompanied by the aim of converting the local people to Catholicism in order to bind them to Spain through religious faith. The Spanish approach was quite different to that of any other European colonial power. Portuguese policy on education in its ...


45

Ironically, it seems to coincide with the addition of the very word 'ampersand' to the dictionaries. But the process took a while to complete and a precise date seems to be undeterminable, not in the least because it wasn't universally adopted ever. The character got its corrupted name around 1837 and from then on lost popularity so much that by the late ...


25

The three man are, also according to the text, the three rectors present at a faculty meeting. The staffs they are carrying are rectorial staffs ("Rektorstab"), symbolising their honour and autonomous power over jurisdiction in matters regarding the university. It seems that in English this is similar to a staff of office and similar to ceremonial maces. ...


23

This goes back to Frederick Barbarossa. He granted the university the so called scholar's privilege the privilegium scholasticum or authentica habita in 1150s. Full universities had to be granted papal or princely privileges to be founded but from 1150s on they had judicial autonomy. It was the result of active and collective defiance of students and ...


21

More details can be found in the related Wikipedia article. University students typically had one of three sponsors: their own (wealthy) families the church the crown The admissions criteria and payments were set by the respective sponsors. That is the church and crown had their own "feeder" schools, and chose the best students of these to take ...


20

TL;DR Teachers were local. Instruction was good enough for the majority of the victims ;-) to read a simple text and understand slow direct speech. Why? The foreign/second language teachers all over the world are overwhelmingly trained local professionals for whom the language is usually also foreign/second (the only major exception is the Israeli Ulpan). ...


19

Both question and answer /comments appear very Americo-centric. I was born in 1949, just 2 years after the OP, and I cannot remember not knowing about the second world war and the atrocities. We did not study the war at school, but as someone said, it was not "history" - it was our parent's and older siblings lived experience. Whilst the word "Holocaust" ...


16

I think this is not specific to the U.S. at all. (Although I freely admit that, from what I know American education, it would certainly benefit from being less concerned with only the U.S., and a bit more with the rest of the world.) Politics had always been a game of power, and, historically, the only, or at least the most successful, way to gain power ...


15

Anecdotal reports from friends suggest that in the German Democratic Republic, the teachers were mostly Germans.


14

Latin was indeed the lingua franca of the period, and very, very few people could read or write. There just wasn't a lot of reason to be able to do so; paper was not introduced to Europe until the 1200s, so before then if you wanted to write anything down you had to go through the painstaking process of creating a piece of vellum or parchment for what it was ...


14

The biggest primary factor was to spread religion. When Christian missionaries came to Hawai'i in the early 1800s, they immediately began to institutionalize the conversion process. They even went so far as to send a printer in the first group of missionaries to quickly get scripture into the local language. It was quite opportune timing for the ...


13

First, let's remember that a knight is not just an armoured soldier on horseback; he is a knight precisely because of being in receipt of a knight's fee under knight-Service, with military (and/or financial, see scutage) obligations to his lord in exchange for possession of land, a manor, deemed sufficient to support not only the knight and his family, but ...


12

This question has had me curious for the longest time. It seems I have finally dug something up. I site this document which is a UCLA 1935-1936 Student Catalog From Page 59 The College of Letters and Science , with a curriculum leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts It seems the curriculum for a BA was divided into three parts (quoted from page 59)...


12

Two major reasons for this : The introduction of printing through Johannes Gutenberg, and the Reformation which implied that every Christian should be able to read the Bible, which made reading accessible and interesting. The Reformation spread first among craftsmen and merchants who could read. The progressive introduction of paper in the 14th, 15th and ...


12

There appears to be an explanation in the book Generations by (the late) William Strauss and Neil Howe. It has to do with kinds of people, specifically generations, that became teachers immediately after World War II. The older of these two was the so-called World War II generation. This generation provided the soldiers that beat the Nazis, but having ...


12

(There are quite a number of sources on the internet concerning colonial education, some of which are provided at the end for those who want more than the 'highlights' below.) The education available to the colonists depended very much on two factors: where they lived and how wealthy or what class they were. Private education was all there was initially and ...


11

The USSR didn't send local teachers to the satellite countries. They probably could have done it: a quick demographic calculation shows, some thousands of native Russian teachers had been enough for ten million people in the satellite state. It is far lesser, as the "temporarily by us stationing allied forces", what was an euphemism for the Soviet occupants. ...


11

Universities in Europe changed little during the early modern period and, in many respects, resembled the institutions of the late medieval period. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, registration at a university was subject to rules derived from medieval tradition which were broadly the same in the whole of Europe. They.... varied little until ...


11

You can't "abolish" a language by decree. People can't just be ordered to forget how to speak, nor can they learn an entirely new language within a short period of time. As long as the language remains alive, Japan would simply revoke English the moment it regains sovereignty - as it did with numerous GHQ initiatives on in 1952. Thus, the only way to ...


10

James B. Conant, a higher education reformer and president of Harvard University from 1933-1953, adopted the Scholastic Aptitude Test (now known simply as the SAT) for Harvard admissions in 1941. Harvard was one of the last selective Northeastern schools to drop its separate entrance examination— though it had used the SAT for evaluating scholarship ...


10

All about the money. As merchants and trade became important you needed lawyers, to learn law you had to go and find a teacher. The teachers hung around in towns that had important trade links (Paris, N. Italy, Oxford) and the students turned up looking for the teachers. Gradually instead of hanging around in bars and seedy rooming houses the students and ...


10

Question: At what point did high school become a standard prerequisite for university students in the USA? The United States educational system unlike those in Europe is not centralized and thus the above question varies by state and sometimes varies by county. So while Massachusetts converted the private high school Boston Latin to become the first ...


10

Among the best primary sources for this are Institutio Oratoria by Quintilian (c.35 to c.100 BC) and Dialogus de oratoribus, usually attributed to Tacitus (c.56 to c.100). Both of these are cited extensively by Stanley Bonner in Education in Ancient Rome: From the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny. It should be noted, though, that the liberal education ...


9

From about the mid-19th century on, there were four distinct trends occurring that all motivated, in unison, the development of compulsory education. These trends occurred throughout all of Western Europe as well as North America at roughly the same time. First was the desire to eliminate child labour. By ensuring the registration of all children, and then ...


8

I tried looking at the biographies of known native Africans. An obvious starting point is Nelson Mandela, he went to the University of Fort Hare. Close but no cigar: that university was founded in 1916. However, his biography also mentions University of South Africa (founded as University of the Cape of Good Hope in 1876) and University of the Witwatersrand (...


8

Because Hermes Trismegistus told him the secret of the sacred writing and he read the walls of the pyramids of Unas.  Just kidding. Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus both wrote long accounts of the Egyptian gods. The words "Osiris", "Isis", and "Horus" are all Greek words, not Egyptian words. Milton makes extensive reference to both authors in his poems. ...


8

SHORT ANSWER In 1901, there were two higher education institutes but neither was, at the time, truly comparable to Dutch universities. The first genuine university-level education was not available until 1920, the shortage of trained professionals having become apparent during WWI. DETAILED ANSWER Prior to 1800, the education system was in the hands of ...


8

I'm going to address your question in two parts: 1. The accuracy of the claim that attendance dropped. 2. The effect that the lectures had on the attendees. Firstly, as you rightly hypothesised, the tale of dropping attendance was false. This stemmed from a preface to the book, written by David Goodstein and Gerry Neugebauer. They wrote that "… as the ...


7

The slaveholding colonies and states of the American South are one such example, where the slaveholding class used illiteracy as a way to make it easier to control the enslaved population. An act from South Carolina of 1740 made it a fineable offense to teach slaves to read or write: Whereas, the having slaves taught to write, or suffering them to be ...


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