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42

The history is a bit sketchy about this period. The most well-known early source, Ibn Abd al-Hakam Conquest of Egypt and North Africa and Spain, was written in 870. Being written about two centuries after the conquest, he had to rely a lot on oral traditions. In addition, many early sources focused on highlighting the Muslim victories and had little ...


19

This Jewish source characterizes Muslim rule in Spain during the Middle Ages as being "kind" by contemporary standards, but not by modern standards. Jews and Christians in Spain lived in a "second class citizenship," denied certain prvileges, but also free of "ghettoes," forced conversions, and outright persecution. Their fate in Moslem Spain was much better ...


18

First and foremost, you've got to understand what it is that ancient historians mean by "records" of ancient Egypt. We do not, by and large, have accounting ledgers or encyclopedias from that time. They may have existed (well, probably not in the case of the latter) but they are gone to us. What we have instead are the objects that were left behind: ...


17

TL;DR: Roughly around the 3rd century AD, because Christianity. Here is an article that briefly describes the historical development of ancient Egyptian mummification practices, including their decline. In the Late Period and Ptolemaic Period (525-30 B.C.), the technical proficiency of the embalmers began to decline. During the Roman occupation of ...


15

Francis Celora in Delta as a Geographical Concept in Greek literature (login required, 100 free articles / month) notes: That a stranger who arrives at the mouth of the Nile in times when maps were almost scholars' curiosities can visualize the shape of the Delta region and produce the almost witty comparison with a letter of the alphabet is an achievement. ...


12

As you pointed out, your basic premise is wrong. There is nothing "homogenous" about the Egyptians. Just for starters, centuries of Arab conquest changed that. Even in ancient times the Egyptians had different ethnic groups living in different parts of the country, and the ethnicity of the royal family and nobility was considered different ...


12

The premise of the question is somewhat invalid, as the rulers of Egypt did periodically venture outside of the country's natural boundaries and conquer other parts of the Levant. Thutmose III held the high-water mark in the Ancient era, as he at one time held sway over all of the fertile crescent (except lower Sumeria), large portions of Nubia, and most of ...


12

Being an Egyptian myself, I have some information about this subject. But my information is also supported by an Egyptian Egyptologist called "Ossama Al-Sa'dawy" who has a PHD in the Ancient Egyptian language. My sources are his research papers and his dictionary, and he states (And again, me being an Egyptian I can confirm) that a lot of words that modern ...


10

A work by Rainer Maria Rilke, Nimet Eloui and Edmond Jaloux in 1952, 'His Last Friendship' or 'Derniere Amite Engl.', has the following paragraph (from snippet view on search page, emphasis mine): ... Nimet Eloui Bey's father, Achmed-Khairi Pasha and her mother, were both of Circassian or Tcherkess stock, and were second cousins. Her mother was the ...


9

Population estimates A number of estimates have been made for the population of ancient Egypt but, as the article The people of ancient Egypt says, Egyptologists tend to dodge the issue of population numbers, as there are no statistics available and all such numbers are based on more or less educated guesswork. The British Museum Dictionary of ...


9

In addition to Drux's fine answer, Napoleon's ability to evade the British was down to a number of factors but miscommunication by the British played a very large part. When Sir Sidney Smith was assigned to the Levant Squadron, he was also given a diplomatic mission by the British Cabinet. However, this additional role was not communicated to his superiors ...


9

There are a number of Egyptian defeats known to history - some of them come to us from contemporaneous accounts from neighboring civilizations, others from archaeological evidence, but many of them come from the Egyptian historical record. In direct answer to your question, here is the Victory Stela of Piye, which documents the conquests of the Nubian ...


9

The answer is a combination of military and political reasons. Israel had survived several wars up to this point, from enemies who outnumbered and wanted to completely destroy them. Their success had created a strong belief in Israeli might, both internally and externally. This war changed their outlook. Israel had caused severe damage to its enemies ...


7

Well, Wikipedia does have a page for it, so yes it has been done. For example, Ramses III had the E-V38 Y Chromosome Haplogroup. Interestingly, most of the modern people who have a large preponderance of this pattern are West African. However, some of it is found all over Africa, and even in about 10% of modern Eqyptians. So I don't think a lot can really ...


7

It looks like there are several versions of the 'threatening letter' sent to Qutuz. The version from the wiki about Qutuz has the following phrasing: Let al-Malik al-Muzaffar Qutuz, who is of the race of Mamluks who fled before our swords into this country, who enjoyed its comforts and then killed its rulers, let al-Malik al-Muzzafar Qutuz know, as ...


7

I've literally just got hold of a hard copy of Rainer Maria Rilke's His Last Friendship, and so I thought I would take the opportunity to expand upon justCal's excellent answer. (It seems as if he only had access to the version on Google Books, which is rather limited.) Here's a sketch of Nimet Eloui Bey's life, chief amongst them being Chapter V of the ...


7

This analysis in Nature from May 2017 [#1] states: Here we present 90 mitochondrial genomes as well as genome-wide data sets from three individuals obtained from Egyptian mummies. The samples recovered from Middle Egypt span around 1,300 years of ancient Egyptian history from the New Kingdom to the Roman Period. Our analyses reveal that ancient Egyptians ...


7

We can indeed nail down a date for this: CAIRO LIGHTS GO UP FIRST CAPITAL TO END BLACK-OUT By an order of the Military Governor, published last night, the black-out in Cairo ends to-day, and full lighting will be reintroduced... The Times, 3 August 1944 (the story is dated 2 August 1944, so the effective date was presumably 2 August). It goes on to note ...


6

In Military terms, the surrounded Third Army would have had to surrender soon. Egypt had no reserves on that side of the Canal, so a drive north to the coast would have cut off the other Armies as well. This would leave the major cities along the Nile open to attack and occupation. Adding a little political insight, aside from major power intervention, ...


6

She was known as "s3t-niswt" which literally translates to Daughter of the King. "s3t-niswt" and "Princess" are similar but don't have the same meaning. "Princess" can be female close to the king including daughter-in-laws. "s3t-niswt" litterally means Daughter of the King and doesn't leave any ambiguity there.


6

This is (at least in part) caused by Britain and their balance of power strategy. The Ottoman empire was viewed somewhere between 'not a threat' yet 'integral to the balance of Europe'. A Russia that could conquer the Ottoman empire was a Russia that could take on the whole of Europe, starting with the Austrian empire and moving to the West from there. ...


6

I did a quick google search on the title of your question and found a few relevant resources. Perhaps the results below will help with some context and additional search terms? March 1979 marked the signing of the U.S.-backed peace agreement between Israel and Egypt. The Soviet leadership saw the agreement as giving a major advantage to the United States....


5

Egypt falling into England's grasp began earlier, with Napoleon. By the end of the 18th century, the Ottomans, focused on fighting the Russians had focused their resources on protecting their European territories and were only weakly holding on to Egpyt. Napoleon realized that even though the Suez Canal had not been built, the British were still able to ...


5

I think you are referring to a proposal by Moshe Dayan to Meir in December 1970 that Israel withdraw 20 miles from the Suez Canal in order to aid the Egyptians in reopening the canal and possibly averting their motivation to go to war, according to this article in the Times of Israel. Two months later, Sadat, in a speech to the Egyptian National Assembly ...


5

Following the Battle of the Nile (Aboukir Bay), the bulk of the British fleet, including Nelson's flagship Vanguard, returned to the western Mediterranean (either to Gibraltar or to Naples) in order to repair and refit. Only a small covering naval force under Sir Thomas Troubridge was left to blockade the French transports in Alexandria. This small flotilla ...


5

For a pyramid to be "half an octahedron", its height must be the width divided by sqrt(2). Examination of the List of Egyptian pyramids shows that this is not the case. E.g., Sneferu: 220/(105*sqrt(2)) = 1.481557 Khufu: 230.3/(146.6*sqrt(2)) = 1.110823 Menkaure: 103.4/(65.5*sqrt(2)) = 1.116257 i.e., they are flatter than "half an octahedron".


5

Unfortunately this problem is not specific to ancient Egyptian and automatic translation will generally not really be anywhere near understandable. Ancient Egyptian also has the problem of being a language for which no automatic translation software exists, as far as I'm aware (translating things into Ancient Egyptian is not really a common problem). If you ...


5

Just to clarify definitions, phonograms are symbols that are used to represent sounds. Ideograms are symbols used to represents objects or concepts. The ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic alphabet seems to have included both phonograms and ideograms from the very beginning, somewhere between 3300 and 3200BC. Words are often constructed using phonograms at the ...


5

The reason why many Ancient hieroglyphic texts appear “stilted and unnatural” may be because most texts that survived are found in or related to tombs and these get most of the attention because of magic cantations/utterances that at first glance do not seem to make a lot of sense, because words are translated by the meanings we know, not by the meanings ...


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