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42

The history is a bit sketchy about this period. The most well-known early source, Ibn Abd al-Hakam Conquest of Egypt and North Africa and Spain, was written in 870. Being written about two centuries after the conquest, he had to rely a lot on oral traditions. In addition, many early sources focused on highlighting the Muslim victories and had little ...


19

This Jewish source characterizes Muslim rule in Spain during the Middle Ages as being "kind" by contemporary standards, but not by modern standards. Jews and Christians in Spain lived in a "second class citizenship," denied certain prvileges, but also free of "ghettoes," forced conversions, and outright persecution. Their fate in Moslem Spain was much better ...


18

Funny story, that. It all starts with the Suez Canal. Shipping things between the far east and Europe the long way around Africa was certainly doable, but very very time-consuming and expensive. Once built, the canal was half owned by the French and half owned by Egypt. However, Egypt's finances were your typical third world despotic mess, so in 1875 the ...


17

First and foremost, you've got to understand what it is that ancient historians mean by "records" of ancient Egypt. We do not, by and large, have accounting ledgers or encyclopedias from that time. They may have existed (well, probably not in the case of the latter) but they are gone to us. What we have instead are the objects that were left behind: ...


16

TL;DR: Roughly around the 3rd century AD, because Christianity. Here is an article that briefly describes the historical development of ancient Egyptian mummification practices, including their decline. In the Late Period and Ptolemaic Period (525-30 B.C.), the technical proficiency of the embalmers began to decline. During the Roman occupation of ...


14

In "Ptolemy's map of Ireland: a modern decoding,"* R. Darcy and William Flynn discuss Claudius Ptolemy's Geographia, a map (among many other things) mentioning what is believed to be Ireland, dating back to the early second century. Wiki says 140 AD but I could find no other source to corroborate that claim-- but logic suggests Ptolemy made Geographia in his ...


12

The premise of the question is somewhat invalid, as the rulers of Egypt did periodically venture outside of the country's natural boundaries and conquer other parts of the Levant. Thutmose III held the high-water mark in the Ancient era, as he at one time held sway over all of the fertile crescent (except lower Sumeria), large portions of Nubia, and most of ...


10

Egypt remained "special" throughout the period of rule from Rome (through at least 395, in some respects through 640), and there is no indication that the Augustan restrictions were ever lifted. Dio recounts in the Roman History 51.17 that [Octavian] made Egypt tributary and gave it in charge of Cornelius Gallus. For in view of the populousness of both ...


10

Not slaves, or Jews come to think of it. This Discovery Link had some info from archaeology about who built the pyramids. This pretty much sums it up "the pyramids were built by skilled workers and bureaucrats (who lived there all year long) and farmers (who provided seasonal labour during the inundation when they could not work on their farms)". ...


10

At about 80 million people, Egypt has about as many people as the rest of the Arab nations combined, and by far the strongest military in the region. Leaving it out of an "Arab League" is just plain unsustainable. According to Syria and the Middle East Peace Process, the sticking point on getting Egypt back was Syria. Particularly Asad. In the wake of the ...


10

Reasons for Arabs starting the war during Ramadan: Arab attacked Israel on October 6, 1973. That year, October was the month of Ramadan. But the main reason for attack on this day was Yom Kippur festival, which was on this day. Yom Kippur also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year for the Jewish people. Arabs were defeated in all ...


10

Being an Egyptian myself, I have some information about this subject. But my information is also supported by an Egyptian Egyptologist called "Ossama Al-Sa'dawy" who has a PHD in the Ancient Egyptian language. My sources are his research papers and his dictionary, and he states (And again, me being an Egyptian I can confirm) that a lot of words that modern ...


9

The exact population is a bit unclear. Estimates for the time period fall in between 2 and 4 million. This area of Egypt was one of the more densely populated areas in the world at that time due to the fertility of the Nile delta. In the Biblical account, Exodus 12:30 says "for there was not a house without someone dead". Family size is also tough to nail ...


9

In addition to Drux's fine answer, Napoleon's ability to evade the British was down to a number of factors but miscommunication by the British played a very large part. When Sir Sidney Smith was assigned to the Levant Squadron, he was also given a diplomatic mission by the British Cabinet. However, this additional role was not communicated to his superiors ...


9

As you pointed out, your basic premise is wrong. There is nothing "homogenous" about the Egyptians. Just for starters, centuries of Arab conquest changed that. Even in ancient times the Egyptians had different ethnic groups living in different parts of the country, and the ethnicity of the royal family and nobility was considered different altogether. In ...


9

The answer is a combination of military and political reasons. Israel had survived several wars up to this point, from enemies who outnumbered and wanted to completely destroy them. Their success had created a strong belief in Israeli might, both internally and externally. This war changed their outlook. Israel had caused severe damage to its enemies ...


8

The Faddan More Psalter, dating from around 800 AD, found in a bog in Ireland, is lined with papyrus, leading to suggestions of links between the early Irish Christian Church and the Middle Eastern Coptic Church.


8

It is a shadow to show the vertical displacement of the Grand Gallery.


8

There are no known contemporary opinions— perhaps because there was no such event to form an opinion about. Entire books have been written on the loss of the library, but I would first note that most historians reject this story as scurrilous. In fact, the orientalist Bernard Lewis, not ordinarily considered a propagandist for Islam, wrote an essay entitled ...


8

Egypt did not recognise Israel as a country until 1979. Till then, it effectively considered Israel to be enemy-occupied Palestine. (A number of Muslim-majority countries still do.) Consequently, it did not deem Israeli shipping to be legitimate and therefore contended that the blockade did not contravene any agreements. Israeli shipping in the Suez had ...


8

There are a number of Egyptian defeats known to history - some of them come to us from contemporaneous accounts from neighboring civilizations, others from archaeological evidence, but many of them come from the Egyptian historical record. In direct answer to your question, here is the Victory Stela of Piye, which documents the conquests of the Nubian ...


7

Bonaparte's biographer Vincent Cronin's mentions the British naval blockade but no further preventive countermeasures (that I could find upon brief reconsultation). Perhaps this is because this is a one-volume biography of a (in some ways :) big subject. As to Sidney Smith's role (he is also mentioned in the Wikipedia article), his biographer Tom Pocock ...


7

Well, Wikipedia does have a page for it, so yes it has been done. For example, Ramses III had the E-V38 Y Chromosome Haplogroup. Interestingly, most of the modern people who have a large preponderance of this pattern are West African. However, some of it is found all over Africa, and even in about 10% of modern Eqyptians. So I don't think a lot can really ...


6

Actually, England had no part in the building of the Suez canal. That was all France. Here's what happened: Napoleon took his troops on a little excursion through Egypt at the turn of the 19th century. This got a lot of Frenchmen associating the country with romance and adventure. At the time, France had probably the best Civil Engineering schooling ...


6

In Military terms, the surrounded Third Army would have had to surrender soon. Egypt had no reserves on that side of the Canal, so a drive north to the coast would have cut off the other Armies as well. This would leave the major cities along the Nile open to attack and occupation. Adding a little political insight, aside from major power intervention, ...


6

She was known as "s3t-niswt" which literally translates to Daughter of the King. "s3t-niswt" and "Princess" are similar but don't have the same meaning. "Princess" can be female close to the king including daughter-in-laws. "s3t-niswt" litterally means Daughter of the King and doesn't leave any ambiguity there.


6

This is (at least in part) caused by Britain and their balance of power strategy. The Ottoman empire was viewed somewhere between 'not a threat' yet 'integral to the balance of Europe'. A Russia that could conquer the Ottoman empire was a Russia that could take on the whole of Europe, starting with the Austrian empire and moving to the West from there. ...


5

Libya: Gaddafi was ousted from power and killed. Most of his sons (heirs) are in captivity or dead. Right now, the interim government is still trying to find its place. There are still conflicts going on. Libya is a tribal country, and there are reports of cells of Gaddafi loyalists still fighting on. The situation there is still very fragile and hard to ...


5

There were undoubtably numerous plots that made it to various stages. Where such a plot progresses to qualifying as an "attempt" is probably mostly up to the speaker. For example if it was the security services speaking, they'd have incentive to make themselves look good by being a bit generous as to what qualifies as an attempt. On the other hand, someone ...


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