8

Until the seventeenth century there were frequent alterations, but almost all for new places to be enfranchised, which I suspect isn't the sort of change you're thinking of. If you go back long enough, the counties were relatively stable, but the number of towns varied - for example, 88 in 1394, 81 in 1399, and 87 in 1421. By 1509, there were 98 boroughs, ...


7

Here are a couple of descriptions from academic sources. To put it very simply, it all boils down to a classic case of corruption and patronage. It's not necessarily the case that the system gave "citizens the impression of fair elections", but it gave enough people enough of what they wanted. From Michael G. Burros (1982) "The Spanish Jury: ...


7

I searched the internet, and found no reference to Hitler's being a Reichstag deputy or sponsoring legislation up to 1933. This tallies with my personal recollection of no such activity. A commenter found a source (John Toland's biography of Hitler) that supports an inference that he was a deputy up to 1928 (in the early days, before the Nazis' power became "...


6

Not till 1933. Germany Wikipedia has lists of all Reichstag members; Hitler only became a member in 1933 after he was already chancellor. In the Weimar Republic the chancellor didn't have to be a member of the Reichstag (contrary to the Federal Republic, where the chancellor must be a member of the Bundestag).


5

The Papacy is as good as it gets as an example - altough there were families with considerable influence over the choice of Cardinals and later on the Pope, and Nepotism was rampant, there were effective checks on Papal power - if one family tried to get a firm grip on the Pope/Papal position, at least one unhappy nation would start a war, not to mention the ...


4

so were there some Senators who took truncated terms? Yes, that's exactly how it was done. For example Vermont elected its first two Senators in 1791. One Senator was up for re-election in 1794 (and lost), and the other was up for re-election in 1796 (and resigned). Hawaii elected two Senators upon its statehood in 1959. One term expired in 1962, and ...


4

This graph seems to show somewhat of you're looking for: http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/EU/EU02-02.html The graph shows that: between 500 BC and 350 BC, there were between 100,000 and 200,000 citizens between 350 BC and 225 BC, there were between 200,000 and 300,000 citizens There was a 100,000 citizen dip from 225 BC to 175 BC during the ...


3

The Novgorod Republic comes to mind. I cannot think of any family supplying more than one top ruler (be it a Prince, a posadnik or an archbishop). I cannot say if Novgorodian system was specifically set up to prevent the formation of powerful dynastic blocks, but it surely succeeded in doing so.


3

Scholars argue over the very basics of the functioning of the comitia centuriata . Here is the nearest to a hard number I could come up with. The total number of equites in the late Republican/Augustan period is generally thought to be around 10-20,000 (much scholarly squabbling, but most guesses converge around here). The census of 86BC counted 463,000 ...


3

There was a projected plan by Pitt in 1785 which fell through: Pitt's plan now was to extinguish thirty-six of [the rotten boroughs], and to increase the representation of the counties correspondingly. London and Westminster were also to have an increase, a share in the seventy-two seats provided by the abolition of thirty-six constituencies. So ...


2

The closest thing I've found to a detailed history of this is here. It's not written by a professional historian, and it's a long and rather rambling essay. (It also was apparently written before the 2000 election, so it doesn't cover recent developments as discussed in the question.) But it basically does trace the history of the Electoral College in ...


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