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48

This was primarily due to the 1557 influenza pandemic, which returned in 1558 and perhaps lingered for another year or two. This was a global pandemic and other areas of Europe were also severely hit. Making things even worse was that the influenza was preceded by plague, typhus, measles (hat tip: Rusl) and famine in some regions of Europe. Influenza ...


44

In that era, 300 pounds weighs 300 pounds, but it's a different pound. Your example of Robin Hood fixes the time period during the reign of King Richard about 1175, though we must remember this is a legend. This is just after the chaotic reign of King Stephen when the centralized minting of coins broke down. His successor, King Henry II, reintroduced the ...


28

They did. The Anglo-Saxons still used fortified areas and cities or towns, re-used old ones and build them anew. It just takes a bit of time, effort and money to develop those walls and fortifications, to build and to maintain them. And perhaps a bit of an incentive. Like say, not Norman but simply Viking incursions, or earlier some extended 'local troubles'....


26

The names Valeria and Valerie were not in common use in Britain during the Georgian era, but they were certainly known by some via Saint Valerie of Limoges and also because Valerie (in particular) was in use in European aristocracy and literature (both British and continental works translated into English) in the 18th and 19th centuries. Valerie and Valeria ...


18

The answer happens to be on page 251 of your reference [my emphasis]: This is the doctrine established by the celebrated contests of 1784 and of 1834. In each instance the King dismissed a Ministry which commanded the confidence of the House of Commons. In each case there was an appeal to the country by means of a dissolution. In 1784 the appeal ...


16

Pre-Norman English (or Anglo-Saxons) didn't build primarily in stone for their town defenses because a) it would have been prohibitively expensive; b) it would have required much more time than they originally had; and c) it did not correspond to the primary use of the burh system. After the early construction of the burh system, successful townships did ...


14

Short Answer Indirect evidence suggests that it is certainly possible that there were some veterans of Falkirk (1298) who fought at Bannockburn (1314). Men could be enlisted on both sides up to the age of 60; thus, for example, a 20-year-old at Falkirk would have been 36 at Bannockburn, well within the enlistment age limit. Whether they numbered just a ...


13

The parish registers were introduced mainly because Thomas Cromwell had found that they were in common use in the rest of Europe and according to the sources cited by the related wikipedia article, they expressed the desire of the central government to have better knowledge of the population of the country. The 1538 Act requiring parishes to keep these ...


11

From this introduction to various UK archives: Blue Books for Colonial British Africa in the Penn Libraries Blue Books are annual reports of the British colonies. Colonial regulations issued in 1843 state: "The Annual Blue Book containing accounts of the Civil Establishment, of the Colonial Revenue and Expenditure and of various statistical ...


10

Notwithstanding the claims made in the source cited in the other answer, it appears that the answer to the question are there any specific recorded incidents where the Gentlemen Pensioners managed to fulfill their role as a bodyguard in the 16th century? is actually yes. Specifically they acted as bodyguard to Queen Mary I during Wyatt's rebellion. A ...


9

So I think there are two questions at play here: Did boys wear dresses when they were young? Did they do this to make children sexless? The way the article is written, it seems to conflate the two. I feel like the best way to answer your question is to address both points separately. So that's what I'll do. So the answer to the first is yes. As you ...


7

Short Answer The reference to "that famous east window on which Henrietta Maria had once cut her name with a diamond" seems most likely to be a conflation of two or more of various events and artefacts connected to Henrietta Maria and / or her husband, Charles I. These events / artefacts involve Henrietta Maria breaking a window, Charles I ...


6

No, nothing is missing or overlooked in "trew Law" regarding apostolic succession. The text simply does not provide what this unreferenced part of the Wikipedia article claims. What James writes is that the kings are sent to their people by god, and the link to apostles is only found in Paul being used as witness 'that people should obey their ...


5

More than two hours, or about 2 hours, seems to be the accepted estimated duration of the battle. There is little doubt that the battle was decided before midday, though the pursuit of the remnants Richard III's fleeing army continued for several more hours at least. The only contemporary or near contemporary source which appears to say anything about this ...


5

There are, at present, two questions here: One is the title subject which can be answered with a 'maybe'; The other is the specific question on statistics, the answer for which is a 'no, there has been no general country-wide statistics computation' based on Google Scholar searches for some various keywords (though there were promising looking articles on ...


5

BBC According to the British Broadcasting Company Pope Adrian IV's Papal Bull in 1155 led the way to England's first colony. BBC The first proper colonisation took place not in the West or East Indies, nor in America, but in Ireland. Ireland was the first English colony. In 1155, Pope Adrian IV published a Papal Bull Laudabiliter giving Henry II authority ...


4

Very much indeed. Early English Tobacco Trade While tobacco was known in England definitely from the time of sir Walter Raleigh, legislation seems to have taken some time. King James I, amongst other European monarchs, is recorded as focussing on the law, including issuing a ban against tobacco while the population came to think that it was both popular and ...


4

It looks like there has been an incorrect answer (Richard II) to this question up for years and missing the mark by centuries. The last king of England (of Great Britain, actually, of which England was a part) who spoke French as his first language was George II. According to Andrew Thompson's George II: King and Elector, p. 16, referring to George II, &...


4

It doesn't appear to be a common name in the era, but it did exist in England From ancestry.co.uk, I found only the following entries in baptism records from 1811-1831: Valorie Blower and Valeria Wright. The reference to Valerie Mc Morione Evans (as shown in the screenshot below) appears to have arisen from an incorrect transcription, as she was actually ...


3

In the paper "Patterns of smallpox mortality in London, England, over three centuries" authors deal with exactly this problem: We accessed original documents in London, England, in the Guildhall Library, the British Library, the Wellcome Library, and the London Metropolitan Archive. We digitized weekly reported birth and death records for London ...


3

in troubled areas. This is slightly to miss the point that these were troubled areas because of the Normans. In modern times, consider the defensive perimeters around the Green Zone in Iraq, or around army camps in Helmand Province in Afghanistan. Regular family compounds have walls too, but on a very different scale because the level of risk is different....


3

Before Pitt: 1) A ministry (“government”) must command the support of the House of Commons, 2) because Commons must yearly pass the budget and mutiny act (see footnote below). 3) Without the budget the Ministry cannot afford an Army to repress Britons. 4) Without the mutiny act the Ministry cannot lawfully control an Army to repress Britons. Pitt was ...


3

Yes, the kings of England are traditionally numbered post-conquest. Additionally, monarchs who held England and another country in personal union are often given both numbers, like James VI/I, James II/VII, less commonly Henry VI/II, and (more controversially, as he didn't hold both kingdoms at the same time) Louis I/VIII. Order of the numbers is primarily ...


3

Here's something that might serve as a reference... Survey of inns, taverns and alehouses in England and Wales in 1577: National Archives SP 12/115-19. London, Bristol and Norwich are excluded and some other returns are patchy. R. Flenley (ed.), A Calendar of the Register of the Queen's Majesty's Council in the Dominion and the Principality of Wales ... ...


2

There are good answers to this already, but I've got some recently unearthed evidence in mind which is also relevant for this topic. Namely, it turns out that Henry specified the detail of the would-be execution in a warrant book: “We, however, command that… the head of the same Anne shall be… cut off.” Clearly Anne's wishes, whether for divorce or some ...


2

It would appear that the answer is no. This article states that the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners: were part of the standing force, although they did not, except on the field of battle, perform the regular duty of guarding the King's person. This function fell to the Yeomen of the King's Guard, a military body established by Henry VII immediately after the ...


2

The Dynasty that ruled England from 1154 to 1485 is called the Plantagenet Dynasty. The first king of that dynasty, Henry II, was the son of Geoffry, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy, and Matilda of England. Count Geoffry had the nickname of Plantagenet. Centuries later, in the 15th century, members of the Plantagenet dynasty started to use Plantagenet ...


2

Here is a French document about old lead mines in the region were I live in France: giving another approach. This document is very detailed. I translate here only paragraph 17: "V-shaped rakes (trenches) are more discreet but more widespread. Their oblique edges are extended by two ridges of rejections. Their direction visibly follows veins or small ...


2

Upper-middle class The Dublin D4 post code area is best described as Upper-middle class. Independent ie This week, the Dublin Horse Show has brought much-needed gaiety to an area that is going through troubled times. Dublin 4, the pulsing heart of Boomtown Ireland and the only Irish post code that became a term of derision, will never be poverty-stricken. ...


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