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62

I would contend that we tend to overestimate the effectiveness of bows vs armour, and that the armour would likely prevent at least some percentage of the damage to the mount. If we look at the wiki article on Barding we find the following (emphasis mine): During the Late Middle Ages as armour protection for knights became more effective, their mounts ...


26

The names Valeria and Valerie were not in common use in Britain during the Georgian era, but they were certainly known by some via Saint Valerie of Limoges and also because Valerie (in particular) was in use in European aristocracy and literature (both British and continental works translated into English) in the 18th and 19th centuries. Valerie and Valeria ...


18

Knights didn't just face longbows. There were also swords, pikes, maces etc. on the battlefield and good plate armor also protected against firearms. Two knights fighting on the battlefield - they're trying to hit each other but sometimes the horses get hit instead.. There's an article called Armour which says a lot about this. For example, The horse was ...


18

The answer happens to be on page 251 of your reference [my emphasis]: This is the doctrine established by the celebrated contests of 1784 and of 1834. In each instance the King dismissed a Ministry which commanded the confidence of the House of Commons. In each case there was an appeal to the country by means of a dissolution. In 1784 the appeal ...


13

The short answer is we're not sure. When the Roman State was in decline and had to withdraw from England, (coincidentally?) Germanic tribal power was on the increase. That left a power vacuum in England at the same latitudes that coastal Germanic tribes were already living on the opposite shore of the North Sea. Unfortunately, it also left a literacy vacuum,...


13

The parish registers were introduced mainly because Thomas Cromwell had found that they were in common use in the rest of Europe and according to the sources cited by the related wikipedia article, they expressed the desire of the central government to have better knowledge of the population of the country. The 1538 Act requiring parishes to keep these ...


12

The long bow was a particularly effective weapon against armored cavalry, and the French were surprised by this fact. The (relatively thin) armor that you mentioned had earlier provided the horse some protection against "spears," particularly those wielded by enemy infantry. Although Swiss "pikes" (about 50 years into the future from the end of the Hundred ...


12

Ell In England, the ell was usually 45 in (1.143 m), or a yard and a quarter. It was mainly used in the tailoring business but is now obsolete. Although the exact length was never defined in English law, standards were kept; the brass ell examined at the Exchequer by Graham in the 1740s had been in use "since the time of Queen Elizabeth". Selvedge A ...


12

The hand gesture showing the middle fingers together has been variously described as a ‘W’ or ‘pseudo-zygodactylous gesture’ or the ‘El Greco gesture’. It seems to have originated in late renaissance or Mannerism period from 1520 to the late 17th century, and was subsequently adopted by many artists in later periods. El Greco was not the first to use this ...


11

From this introduction to various UK archives: Blue Books for Colonial British Africa in the Penn Libraries Blue Books are annual reports of the British colonies. Colonial regulations issued in 1843 state: "The Annual Blue Book containing accounts of the Civil Establishment, of the Colonial Revenue and Expenditure and of various statistical ...


10

Many, including William II, Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, John, Henry IV, Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I (i.e., were not next heir of previous monarch by primogeniture). Richard III is squishy. It depends whether Edward V and his brother were already dead. Note that I was explicit about how I interpreted "line of ...


8

Do you know what the difference is between an endonym and an exonym? An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect1. It is a common name used only outside the place, group, or linguistic community in question. An endonym or autonym is an internal name for a geographical ...


7

Robert Bartlett, professor of Medieval History at the University of St Andrews, has written that the success of Henry II's short cross type coinage issued in 1180 was so great that no one was willing even to tamper with its inscription, so that English pennies bore the legend 'King Henry' throughout the reigns of Richard I and John. Source: Robert ...


7

Notwithstanding the claims made in the source cited in the other answer, it appears that the answer to the question are there any specific recorded incidents where the Gentlemen Pensioners managed to fulfill their role as a bodyguard in the 16th century? is actually yes. Specifically they acted as bodyguard to Queen Mary I during Wyatt's rebellion. A ...


6

This is what the War of the Roses was about. The Houses of Lancaster and York fought each other until the Lancaster branch went extinct. For a moment it seemed like things may have ended there -- which is to say, England moving on, with an usurper on the throne. But the House of Tudor inherited the Lancastrian claim, and its supporters ultimately prevailed.


6

The first United States census began on August 2, 1790. Unlike modern census questions, the early versions usually were limited to 6 questions: name of the head of the family and the number of persons in each household of the following descriptions: Free White males of 16 years and upward (to assess the country’s industrial and military potential), free ...


6

Gold is quite malleable, as shown by Blood's ability to flatten the crown with a few moments' work with a mallet. Reversing the damage would have been done slowly and carefully by a skilled jeweller, but there's nothing fundamentally hard about the job. My practical jewellery experience is limited, but the process would have been something like this: Make ...


5

So the question is limited to Middle Age England. The various kingdoms in Anglo Saxon England were gradually united over several centuries, with the more or less official date of foundation of the Kingdom of England being 927. A few centuries earlier was the period of what is called the Heptarchy. The name Heptarchy implies there ere seven Anglo-Saxon ...


5

In 1689 Solomon Ayllon was appointed rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in London, and as you can see in the picture on Wikipedia, he wore a beard. (His predecessor, Jacob Abendana, who was appointed in 1680, probably did too - most religious Jews, or at least rabbis, at that time did - but I don't know of any picture of him.)


4

Are you asking if there were any usurpers in English history, when someone overthrows and replaces the ruling king? Or a person who is not the rightful heir of the king according to normal inheritance customs becoming king when the old king dies. Both have happened in English history. An example of the second is when King Richard I died in 1199. His ...


4

It's probably a case of move along nothing to see here, or some stylistic effect to make it look latin, as suggested by Pieter in his comment. I and J used to be used interchangeably. It's only during the Renaissance (Gian Giorgio Trissino in 1524) that the idea of using the two letters to represent different sounds emerged. The first English book to make ...


4

More than two hours, or about 2 hours, seems to be the accepted estimated duration of the battle. There is little doubt that the battle was decided before midday, though the pursuit of the remnants Richard III's fleeing army continued for several more hours at least. The only contemporary or near contemporary source which appears to say anything about this ...


4

There are, at present, two questions here: One is the title subject which can be answered with a 'maybe'; The other is the specific question on statistics, the answer for which is a 'no, there has been no general country-wide statistics computation' based on Google Scholar searches for some various keywords (though there were promising looking articles on ...


4

Very much indeed. Early English Tobacco Trade While tobacco was known in England definitely from the time of sir Walter Raleigh, legislation seems to have taken some time. King James I, amongst other European monarchs, is recorded as focussing on the law, including issuing a ban against tobacco while the population came to think that it was both popular and ...


4

I'm posting this as an answer because it has grown far too long to post in comments. In short, the appearance of rural housing in the mid-eighteenth century varied according to where you were in England, and the nature of the local building materials available. As with any other period, the appearance of houses and the living conditions in rural England ...


4

It doesn't appear to be a common name in the era, but it did exist in England From ancestry.co.uk, I found only the following entries in baptism records from 1811-1831: Valorie Blower and Valeria Wright. The reference to Valerie Mc Morione Evans (as shown in the screenshot below) appears to have arisen from an incorrect transcription, as she was actually ...


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