Podcast #128: We chat with Kent C Dodds about why he loves React and discuss what life was like in the dark days before Git. Listen now.

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88

English meadows and forests are and were full of psychoactive substances. They were used. Quite creatively. In what psychiatrists call polytoxicomania. In what aficionados call synergistic combinations. This answer defines 'drugs' as mind-altering substances. The psychoactives do not need to be on the level of effectiveness of Oktoberfest inebriation or ...


28

Folk etymology is of little use here. And one Staverton is not necessarily of the same origin of another Staverton. So 'a staved town' is not really 'a staved town'. One Staverton may share its etymological origin with a Starbotton: The derivation of the name is the subject of much debate. It is thought to be derived from "Stamphotne" (1086 Domesday Book) ...


26

The first place that I would search is the British Newspaper Archive. Note that this site requires a subscription to actually view the newspapers, although it is free to search. If you have a subscription, it is possible to zoom in on the high-resolution scans of the newspapers, making it easier to read the stories than it is with many of the originals! ...


19

tl; dr No, Edward III paid a token tribute of £1,000 in 1333 (in expectation of receiving papal favours in return). In 1365, the English parliament debated the latest papal demand for tribute. They concluded that John’s original surrender of the realm to the Pope had been invalid, since it had lacked the assent of the bishops. From the perspective of the ...


16

With all due respect to Dr McAdam, I don't think that is correct. To give just one example, we have depictions of Anglo Saxon cavalry wearing helmets on Pictish stones like the one in the churchyard at Aberlemno Parish Church: Image source Wikimedia This particular stone is often referred to as Aberlemno II, and the battle scene depicted is generally ...


16

SHORT ANSWER From the point of view of the English king and parliament, England stopped being a Papal fief in 1365. In 1365 parliament debated the latest papal request and concluded that John’s original surrender of the realm had been invalid since it had lacked the assent of the bishops. This marked the formal end to English recognition of the ...


13

Short answer The two accounts cited in your question are not so much contradictory as very short versions of what was a lengthy series of negotiations over many months. The 1360 Treaty of Bretigny, which ceded sovereignty over large parts of France to Edward III, was an important part of Henry V’s demands but the English King wanted more than just French ...


13

Firstly, it is worth noting that the Black Death actually reached England in June 1348, not in the twelfth century as you stated. But to answer your specific question, no the idea of appointing escheators wasn't caused by the Black Death. The system for of appointing escheators was initiated in 1232, and by 1341 had already achieved the form that was to ...


12

The Erenow site has an image of the seal on it's page titled The Fears of Henry IV, although it isn't particularly high resolution, and doesn't provide further details for the source of the image: This seems to match the description that you mentioned on p 242 of Charles Boutell's English Heraldry "... a very remarkable Seal, used by HENRY IV. a short ...


11

A young lady from the Victorian era would not walk that distance. A young lady would be driven that distance in the family coach. If the young lady is running away from her family, or other circumstances force her to travel the distance on foot and unassisted, my hiking experience says it would take about four hours, and she'd limp into town with sore, ...


10

According to the chronicler Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. 1142), most of the royal treasure was recovered: The dwellers on the coast, as soon as they ascertained that the reports of the disaster was well founded, dragged to the shore the wreck of the ship, with the whole of the royal treasure; and almost all that was in the vessel, the crew and ...


10

Well, we do have an example of a literary heroine of that age who walks about half that distance in a morning's walk: Elizabeth Bennet in Pride and Prejudice (Chapter VII) walks three miles, across fields and stiles, the day after a heavy rain, to be able to reach her sister when she has fallen ill while visiting the Bingleys. The time it takes is not seen ...


10

Although marked as obsolete in the O.E.D. (1928), this oldest meaning for the word leisure is attested as late as 1640: Leisure: a. Freedom or opportunity to do something specified or implied b. opportunity


10

There are two contemporary accounts of those festivities - "Langham letter" and "The Princely Pleasures at the Courte at Kenelwoorth". These have a certain discrepancy in how they describe this particular episode, but none of them mentions the dolphin being underwater, or it being an automaton. Here's how the author of "Princely Pleasures" describes the ...


10

With one hinge folded we see a four-column matrix affording an unusual crosswise reading. It's probably custom work, as none of us have located a similar object online, and isn't really a ruler at all: the discontinuity at the other hinge makes any length measurement onto the second half incorrect. This device had perhaps three functions: to exhibit the high ...


10

"Stave" is/was the plural of "staff"... "ton" is the root of "town" but the original term meant something closer to "enclosed place". So it's possible that the name originated from a place that was enclosed with staffs... But towns also took their names from specialty products that were produced there... so it is also possible that the town produced "staves"...


10

The hand gesture showing the middle fingers together has been variously described as a ‘W’ or ‘pseudo-zygodactylous gesture’ or the ‘El Greco gesture’. It seems to have originated in late renaissance or Mannerism period from 1520 to the late 17th century, and was subsequently adopted by many artists in later periods. El Greco was not the first to use this ...


10

Many, including William II, Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, John, Henry IV, Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I (i.e., were not next heir of previous monarch by primogeniture). Richard III is squishy. It depends whether Edward V and his brother were already dead. Note that I was explicit about how I interpreted "line of ...


9

This is not true, certainly for the later period and probably for the earlier period too. Covering the early period (and bearing in mind that it is heroic fiction), we have references in Beowulf to the 'grimhelmas' worn by the warriors of Beowulf's company on arrival at Heorot (line 334) and before the fight with Grendel (line 1245); none of whom were ...


9

The short answer is that the members of Court of Exchequer were called Barons because that was members of that court were called. The answer is that the titles and court were created in the 1190's when there was no such thing as the House of Lords and titles were not regulated as they were later. To show that not all Barons are in the House of Lords. ...


9

I offer this only because no one has yet provided a more informed answer. A few centuries earlier, writing in the early Eighth century, St Bede complained in his 'History of the English Church and People' [also sometimes called 'Ecclesiastical History of the English People'] that in his day people of influence were taking advantage of the exemption of ...


8

I share everyone else's concerns about the assumptions embedded in this question, but I also think this is the kind of thing that H:SE is built for - to give the context to undermine flawed assumptions. A villein is neither slave nor free; legally bound to the land, and to the feudal overlord. This is a society that measures wealth in land, and the villein ...


7

tl; dr Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk is correct. The 'common law' he is referring to for England dates to a legal judgement in 1321. The Statute, however, dates to 1351 (not the fifteenth-century as claimed in your quote.) So, a fourteenth-century statute, De Natis Ultra Mare, did restrict the English crown to those in the liegeance of the Sovereign. ...


7

Biographies of both Mowat and Kingsford are in agreement that the final round of envoys to Paris, in spring 1415, negotiated in apparent good faith and were willing to relent on Henry's claim to the French throne in return for concessions beyond that to which the French were willing to agree. The counter terms from the French were apparently such to ...


6

You are correct that Heresy was an offence dealt with by the Church courts. However, the church courts could indeed sentence heretics to death. If convicted, the offender was then handed over to the State for that sentence to be carried out. However, this does not mean that the State ordered the death of the offender. They merely carried out the sentence. ...


6

tl; dr Yes, you could get bail in the Victorian period. No, it didn't have to be in cash. Yes, someone else could provide the sureties required by the court. Some women could provide the sureties required by the court if they wished to. Wives could only do so in the later part of the Victorian period (when they were actually permitted to own property in ...


6

The history of tea, the meal, or teatime is indeed rather short compared to the English obsession of trading with it. Afternoon tea, that most quintessential of English customs is, perhaps surprisingly, a relatively new tradition. Whilst the custom of drinking tea dates back to the third millennium BC in China and was popularised in England during the ...


6

The pardon was arranged by Gerard Richardson, a wine merchant in Whitehaven and founder / CEO of the International Maritime Festivals. Richardson himself has explained that: The John Paul Jones story was the foundation stone of the Maritime Festivals and, during the first one in 1999, Jones was pardoned and the US Navy was given the rare honour of the ...


6

Here is my two penn'orth: Whatever D means, it translates to 9 shillings and fourpence, which is 112 pennies. 112 is the number of pounds in a (British) hundredweight. (These units, shilling and hundredweight, were still taught when I was at school in the 1960's.) So I suggest that D means pennies. Pennies were divided into four farthings prior to 1960, ...


6

This is what the War of the Roses was about. The Houses of Lancaster and York fought each other until the Lancaster branch went extinct. For a moment it seemed like things may have ended there -- which is to say, England moving on, with an usurper on the throne. But the House of Tudor inherited the Lancastrian claim, and its supporters ultimately prevailed.


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