63

From the "contemporary German perspective", the answer is doubtless "Alaric", Juan Pujol García, known to the British as "Garbo". He was paid a total of US$340,000 and awarded the Iron Cross, second class, in July 1944 for his contributions to the war effort. He operated a network that grew to 27 sub-agents in all parts of the UK, communicating via post to ...


12

Evidently, yes. The recently declassified 1946 History of the Signal Security Agency Volume II The General Cryptanalytic Problems has information on this subject. The section covering solution of Chinese secret communications is pp.180-189. (This is the internal end-of-war report of the US Army's codebreaking organization.) Messages of both the KMT and ...


8

Before 1914, the 2 organizations that existed were very small: Army (Abteilung III b): 1908 3, 1914: 5 officers Navy (Nachrichtenstelle (N)): 1897: 5, 1900: 2, 1914: unknown Since 1910 there was an active cooperation with Austria (k.u.k. Evidenzbüro). In August 1914, 21 spies were arrested in the United Kingdom and since no communications were possible, ...


6

As it was one of the more spectacular, I'd like to point to the Incident at Venlo, Netherlands at 9th December 1939, which severely crippled British intelligence and created excuse for the invasion: On September 3, 1939, Britain declared war on Germany. The Netherlands, a neutral state bordering the Reich, was now on the front line of the espionage war. ...


4

Robert Hanssen qualifies. Hanssen never told the KGB or GRU his identity and refused to meet them personally, with the exception of the abortive 1993 contact in the Russian embassy parking garage. The FBI believes the Russians never knew the name of their source.


1

Eli Cohen is an excellent example. Debatable is Mata Hari. Debatable in the sense that she possibly/likely wasn't a spy. In all other aspects (culture, language, behaviour, etc.) she was fluent in Dutch, German, English and French.


1

Question: Were there any important spies in modern history who had to conceal their true nationality (or culture)? While not an especially important spy, and not involved in concealing one's "national" identity, I'm going to go with the story which inspired the play M. Butterfly. Where a man concealed his gender from someone he recruited for over a 20 ...


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