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99

Which Germany do you mean? Something that can reasonably called a German nation-state was founded only in 1871, when Prussia first defeated France and then unified most German states under their leadership in the Kaiserreich. Before there had been a messy rivalry between Prussia and Austria for the leadership in what used to be the Holy Roman Empire -- not ...


70

Overview Since there are a fair amount of them, languages are grouped below by language family: Basque A linguistic isolate native to the Pyrenees mountains between Spain, and France. Source: "Location of the Basque-language provinces within Spain and France" by Eddo from Wikipedia.org Uralic Languages Source: "Linguistic maps of the ...


58

That was the whole idea behind it. Not every bit of coastline is liable to invasion. Only on certain beaches troops could be landed. Steep cliffs and dangerous shallows didn't need protection. Place a very strong defense tower with a gun crew, and that single gun crew could keep a possible invasion force at bay. Don't forget that coastal defense has the ...


48

In terms of continuously dateable genealogy, it is probably the Bagratids of Georgia, the current head of which is disputed between three branches. The Georgian branch was founded by Adarnase in the late 700s as branch of the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty, though descendants then fabricated an origin story claiming descent from the biblical David, which is ...


37

As Carlos Martin has noted, these soldiers are men at arms. They might be armed with swords, bows or crossbows, spears, or other pole-arms (eg pikes or halberds) depending on precise period and geographic origin. Generally they would be responsible for their own arms and armour, but a wealthier lord (or captain for a mercenary rather than feudal levy) might ...


33

Germany arrived late to the party, and did so unenthusiastically Germany basically was a mess of small states at the onset of the colonial era. It took a very long time for Brandenburg-Prussia to emerge as a power to be reckoned with. And it was not until Napoleon dismantled the Holy Roman Empire that the way was paved for Germany's unification. When that ...


33

They most probably got that knowledge from cultural exchange with the greek city-states from southern France, like Massilia (Marseille), which was founded around 600 BCE and had plenty of relations with the sorrounding celtic tribes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Marseille


30

If you are a prince, you may call yourself whatever you want. And you can try to impose the usage of the title on your subjects, if you really care. But this is not the main point. The main point is the recognition by your neighboring princes and kings. A good case to illustrate this is the story of Russia. It used to be the Grand Duchy of Moscow, or simply ...


28

In order to support a global empire, you need to be capable of supplying and defending your outposts with a strong Navy. The five other European nations that you named all had long naval traditions and the growth and decline of their empires reflect their respective abilities to support and defend their overseas assets. Failing to recognise the importance ...


28

I think that the towers have to be considered in context. They were just part of the defenses, which included gunboats and inland fortifications, that were intended to repel a French invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. While modern historians can look back with hindsight and declare that the risk of a French invasion evaporated after Trafalgar, people on ...


26

Note that a satirical sketch like this does not necessarily portray the actually participants at a conference. Often, they feature a personification of the nations involved. In this case, as Denis commented, green, blue, white and red are the colours for Russia, France, Austria and England, respectively, derived mainly from their military uniform colours. So:...


25

[What] was a waitress called in the Middle Ages? In Europe, they didn't exist as a recognized occupation. And is there a different name for the ones who did this kind of job inside a castle, in contrast to the women doing this kind of job in, for example, a tavern? At a castle, the servants in the great hall would simply be servants (pre-Conquest, þrǣl,...


24

From the top of my head, I remember the word wench, which originally meant girl, then a servant, and later also a prostitute, which is likely why it went out of use for waitresses. Here’s a somewhat confirming article from 1988. (If link is blocked for you, use Wayback Machine copy.) It describes the job of a wench at Medieval Times, a “dinner theater” ...


22

This is an example of decorative marginalia, which is quite common on medieval manuscripts. Sometimes the marginalia relates to the context of the subject of that page of the manuscript, but often it appears to have been quite random. One fairly well-known group that I'm personally particularly fond of is the so-called animals at war which includes images ...


22

This answer is about Maltese. There have been various comments, which I build on and add to, as there are several complications: Does it result from a "modern migration"? Is Malta in Europe? Is it an Indo-European language? Let us look at each of these. The main reference is Maltese language. 1. Does it result from a "modern migration"? Now that the ...


18

If you look at the details of the oldest buildings on your list, all of them are built from fieldstone or minimally-shaped quarried stone. Further, the building materials were either found on-site or transported a relatively short distance. Most of the Fertile Crescent, and particularly Mesopotamia, does not have access to these building materials. ...


17

Farming societies typically support 60 to 100 times the population of hunter-gatherer societies. Given that kind of population difference, what that one person wants/needs vs. the 100 simply doesn't matter. They become unimportant on the ground, and are simply genetically and socially washed away in the tide. The hunter's options are to retreat to unfarmed ...


17

I'm going to take a wild guess (since we don't have an actual picture of the ring yet), does the symbol resemble this? If so your family member may have been a member of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. Note there are quite a few links in the reference section at the end of the Wikipedia article which may help you discover more about what your ...


17

They are Men at arms, professional soldiers. The lance fourni of a knight, the unit of soldiers a knight brought to battles or protected the fief, was formed by professional horse-riders, archers and/or spearmen. They were also called men at arms, so the sergeant/marischal in charge of your unit could be a knight or a common man (a yeoman if you heavily ...


16

This thread doesn't answer my question as principalities weren't under a king who had given them their title and who they owed fealty to. Principalities are top of their own pile. The original question is wrong in claiming that a principality was an independent state. There have been some independent principalities but the majority of all principalities ...


15

The time period from roughly 7500 BP (years Before Present) to 4000 BP (5500 BCE to 2000 BCE), known as the Holocene Maximum (or Optimum) saw global temperatures: rapidly increase from slightly (~0.5°C) below current the present value to between 1 and 2°C higher; stay at those values for nearly 2000 years; and then return to values ~0.5°C below current. (...


14

Actually, some of the oldest known man-made structures are in the Fertile Crescent (FC). The list in your question purposefully excludes sites like Göbekli Tepe, Tell es-Sultan, and Tell Qaramel, each in the FC, on the basis that they're not "recognizable standing buildings". As such there's inherent bias in the source you cite to exclude sites that have ...


12

"The oldest noble family" is a somewhat fictional concept: When a 'House' starts or ends is somewhat arbitrary, and not uniformly handled throughout European history. There were countless exceptions, uncertainties etc. Further complicated by date of ennoblement, as none of them fall from the skies or heavens, and achieved level of nobility, the following are ...


12

Expanding on Alex' answer, there is the example of the Hohernzollern dynasty. They were the prince-electors of Brandenburg, but from 1701 to 1772 they called themselves kings in Prussia. They did not call themselves king of Prussia yet because Brandenburg was part of the HRE and their kingship was only seen as valid outside the HRE -- in Prussia, not in ...


11

By the time of the Napoleonic Wars, most of the European nations had overseas empires and trade missions. International commerce was reliant on sea transport (and even what was essentially 'internal' trade often went by sea) because there was no other efficient way of bringing trade goods from the colonies to the home nations. By this time, the European ...


11

No, that was part of the defense strategy. Making the walls a little bit stronger over all wouldn't help as much as building a very strong keep. That's the general idea behind it. You are absolutely right to assume that those heavily fortified castles within cities were there for a reason: usually to keep the citizens at bay. In many fortified cities those ...


11

Its quite possible, but don't be so credulous of Caesar's judgement and reporting. Not everything he's written has turned out to be 100% accurate. I don't know about the nuances of the original Latin, but that translation reads "they use Greek characters". That's not the same thing as using the Greek language. Right now, this post is using Latin characters. ...


10

This question assumes a 1913 viewpoint and relies on nationalist definitions of a state and its 'colonial empire'. That is a bit problematic. Take the Dutch Colonial Empire as an example: when that started, with its origins listed as 1543–1652, the Dutch Republic was part of the Holy Roman Empire. The first German colony was a private enterprise, not ...


10

Many, including William II, Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, John, Henry IV, Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I (i.e., were not next heir of previous monarch by primogeniture). Richard III is squishy. It depends whether Edward V and his brother were already dead. Note that I was explicit about how I interpreted "line of ...


9

I think Kalmyk has not been mentioned yet. And depending on what you define as "late modern", Chinese (e.g. in Liverpool) may also count.


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