Hot answers tagged

33

They most probably got that knowledge from cultural exchange with the greek city-states from southern France, like Massilia (Marseille), which was founded around 600 BCE and had plenty of relations with the sorrounding celtic tribes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Marseille


21

The distinctive collar 'snake' pattern as well as the eagle worn by the guy sitting in the centre suggest that this is a Polish uniform: left guy has it already A wire wężyk braid, also used for displaying ranks (plWP: Barwy broni i służb Wojska Polskiego II RP), occasionally worn during the war from its start, in Polish legions, with various combinations ...


17

Speaking very generally, merchant groups were relatively marginalized in all pre-modern societies. They formed networks across city-states in different regions, but were not allowed to take strong political footholds in more centralized states. Political rulers saw economic power as a threat, a (sometimes necessary) evil and were generally successful in ...


14

I ignored the UK and Ireland in my search, and I found absolutely nothing trying to cover the period from 1945 to approx. 2000 so I'm leaning towards, 'No, there never was a referendum on adopting English in the higher education sector'. There were two referendums on higher education/research sector in Switzerland in the 1970's: one in 1973 on promoting ...


11

Its quite possible, but don't be so credulous of Caesar's judgement and reporting. Not everything he's written has turned out to be 100% accurate. I don't know about the nuances of the original Latin, but that translation reads "they use Greek characters". That's not the same thing as using the Greek language. Right now, this post is using Latin characters. ...


11

The coronation of Charlemagne was important, but Charlemagne had the upper hand in his relationship with Leo III. Eastern Roman emperors were crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople. No one imagined the Patriarch was superior to the emperor. Nor should you imagine that the powerful Charlemagne considered himself anything but superior to the (quite ...


11

Short Answer In general, opportunities for bathing for personal hygiene existed in most areas of Europe for those who had the financial means, including monarchs, barons, knights, merchants, doctors, churchmen, and the wealthier farmers and artisans (and their families). In many urban areas, there were public bathhouses (though facilities varied enormously ...


10

Many, including William II, Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, John, Henry IV, Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I (i.e., were not next heir of previous monarch by primogeniture). Richard III is squishy. It depends whether Edward V and his brother were already dead. Note that I was explicit about how I interpreted "line of ...


10

I started on this as it looked like a pleasant naval mystery. I'm providing a Summary Answer above, and below my method for reaching that conclusion as well as other relevant information. A lot of my final version for this answer derives from a serendipitous find of a KuK Kriegsmarine document without which it would have been impossible to include this ...


9

According to Sophie Basch in "Le voyage à Constantinople: l'Orient-express" [Snoeck-Ducaju & Zoon, 1997], a first class ticket to Istanbul in 1913 cost 586 gold francs from Paris, or £20.11s from London: Au début du XIXème siècle, les voyages étaient particulièrement dispendieux: entre 27.543,70 frs pour Flaubert, dont la mère tient les comptes avec ...


9

It's a generic Hungarian cowboy wearing a traditional Szűr, rather than anyone in particular. (h/t JustCal for this specific image.) I checked whether it might Széchenyi, Batthyány, Kossuth, or one of the other Hungarian leaders who regularly pop up as place names. The beard style matches none of them.


9

For central Europe, between 1925-1930 may be considered realistic. For France possibly sooner due to a higher motorized density between 1920 and 1930. The transition was uneven due to certain conditions commercial was faster than private motorised vehicles but the private use was probably a much smaller percentage than commercial, so in a city a ...


9

Not made up from 'whole cloth' but copied from ancient papyrii? Many ancient cultures used molds, soil, and plants to treat bacterial infections. In Ancient Serbia, China and Greece, old moldy bread was pressed against wounds to prevent infection. In Egypt, crusts of moldy wheaten bread were applied on pustular scalp infections and “medicinal earth” was ...


8

Judging by History of Silage by Wilkinson et al (2003), the premise behind the question is somewhat inaccurate. Silage making is probably more than 3000 yr old. The ancient Egyptians and Greeks stored grain and whole forage crops in silos. Reviews of the history of silage refer to the mural in the Naples Museum, which shows whole-crop cereals being ...


8

The "especially in winter" part is most certainly an exaggeration, but for a lot of regions not completely impossible: When being well-fed, used to it, with thick scale-like skin developing, otherwise healthy and moving, one can run around for quite a bit longer barefooted in lightly freezing temperatures than popularly expected. The body ...


8

A modern misconception was that Gutenberg invented printing; this was not the case. Woodblock printing was a craft over a thousand years old when he came about. Another misconception was that Gutenberg invented moveable type; this was not the case either. Moveable type was invented four hundred years before Gutenberg's time in China, and made its way to ...


8

It sounds like you are referring to compulsory education. By and large, compulsory education appears to be a trailing indicator of heavy literacy, not a leading one. In other words, once a critical mass of people in a society become literate, it becomes seen as a necessity to function in society (either for the child, for society, or a combination of the ...


7

As one can deduce from the information provided in A Forgotten Mathematician, he was Dutch, confirming the Wikipedia claim. According to 1, Egbertus Rudolf van Kampen, known as Egbert, was born on 28 May 1908 in Berchem as the youngest in a family of three children. Egbert’s parents had moved from the Netherlands to Belgium a couple of years before, ...


7

The only honest answer to this question is We don't know. To state that rape, or any crime, or any activity, was more or less prevalent at one period of time than another requires written records to be kept. However, we have few records about crimes committed during the Middle Ages. IIRC, any form of records about common crimes & other activities only ...


6

This is what the War of the Roses was about. The Houses of Lancaster and York fought each other until the Lancaster branch went extinct. For a moment it seemed like things may have ended there -- which is to say, England moving on, with an usurper on the throne. But the House of Tudor inherited the Lancastrian claim, and its supporters ultimately prevailed.


6

I believe the correct answer is Alfred Nobel, as you already surmised. .... Finally, [Nobel] tried diatomaceous earth, ..., that he brought from the Elbe River near his factory in Hamburg, which successfully stabilized the nitroglycerin into a portable explosive. Nobel obtained patents for his inventions in England on 7 May 1867 The additional pictorial ...


6

If you literally mean "copied", (from an existing original, as opposite to multiplied) then the only method before the invention of photography was "by hand". I mean if you have a picture, and want to reproduce it, the only method was to redraw it, perhaps by putting a transparent paper over it, or using other technical means, like transfering distances ...


6

This question is vague in many ways, and there are good mentions in the above replies. However, I also felt I could improve my previous answer by some other mentions -- and to specifically note that while rare, censuses were a thing because people wanted to estimate their tax intake. It is also impossible to estimate what has not survived down the ages. ...


6

Yes, plenty of people tried to emigrate. However, it was very hard because: Leaving Germany meant Fire Sale - leaving all property behind. It also required a getting a permission from the German state, and Jews were not citizens anymore, so they were not entitled to passports. Ergo: emigration was done illegally. Non-Jews who were fleeing Nazi persecution ...


6

The Catholic Church was a powerful organisation. But it wasn't a secular superpower. That is quite evident when we look at the precarious situation pope Leo found himself in, when previous to the coronation he had to flee his home turf in Rome to Charlemagne. Leo just survived an assassination attempt and made a deal with Charles, the secular power of the ...


6

Elaborating on the comment by Moishe Kohan, History of Penicilin -- Early History, emphasis mine: Many ancient cultures, including those in Egypt, Greece, and India, independently discovered the useful properties of fungi and plants in treating infection.[7] These treatments often worked because many organisms, including many species of mold, naturally ...


6

The bottom of the well is not "dirt" but some kind of soil, or sand, or gravel. Have you ever seen a clear stream? From which you can drink? Same with the well. A stream is a place where underground water surfaces. What could dissolve in the soil, already dissolved long ago. What remains are mineral particles which do not muddle the water unless you disturb ...


6

The first United States census began on August 2, 1790. Unlike modern census questions, the early versions usually were limited to 6 questions: name of the head of the family and the number of persons in each household of the following descriptions: Free White males of 16 years and upward (to assess the country’s industrial and military potential), free ...


6

We can read a NATO perspective on this. Basically, personal conversations regarding the reunification of Germany did not constitute commitments for what would happen a later with the Russian Federation. Nothing was ever written down, but it sounds like there were vague informal promises made on repeated occasions with the intention of soothing Soviet ...


6

Roumania consists mostly of the three main sections Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia. In the 11th century (1001 to 1100) and the 12th century (1101-1200) Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia were usually part of separate realms. Wallachia, for example, was ruled by Turkic peoples such as the Pechnegs in most of the 11th century and the Cumans in the ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible