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5

EDIT: I am editing this to re-phrase some of the conclusions -- although I foresee a more thorough edit over the coming days to incorporate other relevant information I've found. I started on this as it looked like a pleasant naval mystery. I'm providing a Summary Answer above, and below my method for reaching that conclusion as well as other relevant ...


1

Knights were not peers. Indeed, even though baronetcies were inheritable, baronets were not peers either. When a knight was sent to Parliament, it was to sit in the House of Commons, not the House of Lords. Also, it was the prerogative of a king to ennoble people. There was a status accorded to having been of long noble descent, but a man ennobled by the ...


6

This question is vague in many ways, and there are good mentions in the above replies. However, I also felt I could improve my previous answer by some other mentions -- and to specifically note that while rare, censuses were a thing because people wanted to estimate their tax intake. It is also impossible to estimate what has not survived down the ages. ...


1

The original definition of "noble" was someone who owned a large amount of land. At minimum, it referred to someone who could afford to buy and deploy a horse for use in combat. These were the people whom the king granted "fiefdoms" to under the feudal system that made them nobles. There was an important feature of nobility that held true in England, and ...


0

The census in Sweden (done by Tabellverket) became classified in the 1740s (due to the fact that it was shown that our population was far lower than expected - low population was thought to mean that it would have been far easier to conquer Sweden than what the impression from outside were.) But we didn't have a Domesday book in the meaning of taking stock ...


2

Simply put, there is a distinct absence of any official counting being done, by anyone, until long after your period of interest - with the notable exception of the Domesday Book commissioned by William I (The Conqueror) in 1086. From my comment just now on the accepted answer to Are there equivalents of the Domesday Book for other (French or German) ...


0

The height of Papal Power was the penitence at Canossa by the then Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV who waited three days in the cold outside the castle of Canossa (where the Pope GregorY VII was staying) for absolution. This occurred because the Catholic Church was much like the Holy Roman Empire, that is "neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire). For all that, ...


1

Did some people expect WWII? Sure: Predictions of the next war were made as early as in 1918 (see quotes in the end of the answer). Did some people expect the war to start in 1939, applied for an immigrant status few years ahead (it was a long wait) and got their visa in time to get out before the war? Possibly, but the probability is low (since it requires ...


1

It depends on what you mean by commoners, but there were a lot of people who emigrated from Europe in the years prior to WWII. Some names are quite recognizeable (at least if you're acquainted with the history of physics): Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Hans Bethe, John von Neumann, Edward Teller... Those are just a few of the many European refugees who ...


6

Yes, plenty of people tried to emigrate. However, it was very hard because: Leaving Germany meant Fire Sale - leaving all property behind. It also required a getting a permission from the German state, and Jews were not citizens anymore, so they were not entitled to passports. Ergo: emigration was done illegally. Non-Jews who were fleeing Nazi persecution ...


4

There are several issues raised in the question: The legal issue is quite clear and was addressed in other answers. "... how these leaders justified NATO's expansion. Surely someone would have asked them why they are breaking their promises. How did they respond? I'm asking about these named leaders who made the promises only." This question also has a ...


-5

Vae victis ! At the moment we are talking about it was clear to both sides that Soviet Union definitely and irreversibly lost the Cold War. Defeat was primarily ideological, because very few people both in Soviet Union and in Warsaw Pact countries believed in socialism as it was until that point. Gorbachev himself started Perestroika, but all this reforms ...


6

We can read a NATO perspective on this. Basically, personal conversations regarding the reunification of Germany did not constitute commitments for what would happen a later with the Russian Federation. Nothing was ever written down, but it sounds like there were vague informal promises made on repeated occasions with the intention of soothing Soviet ...


3

Question: How did Western leaders justify NATO's eastwards expansion after promising the Soviet leadership it won't happen? Western ministry level bureaucrats might have had informal discussions with Mikhail Gorbachev, however; that's not how countries make formal lasting security agreements. It's more viewed as a snap shot of current feelings. The way ...


-1

There is a dispute if an informal promise was made or if a possibility was raised during the negotiations. Negotiators often explore avenues of possible agreement which do not end up in the final treaty. If it was a clear agreement, why isn't it in the treaty texts? But sometimes nations don't want to put things into writing, especially if it screws over ...


2

When the promise was given in the the 1990s, there was an explicit or implicit assumption that Russia would not invade neighboring countries. Justification is simple and evident: all Eastern European countries (except Finland Belorussia and possibly Moldowa) strongly and unambiguously expressed their desire to join NATO. Since there is no official signed ...


1

The body of the question seems to be very different from the headline. You do not seem to be raising any substantive doubts about any particular historical account. The article you link to about the Almarician's states that 10 people were burned at the stake in Paris c. 1210. I see no specific reason to doubt that this occurred. The Wikipedia article "Death ...


3

Question: Where did the Crusaders go after 1291? Short Answer: In 1291 Europeans lost their last major stronghold in the Holylands. Europeans could generally choose between converting to Islam, leaving, or death ( not arguing their weren't exceptions). However that wasn't the end of the Crusades. The Crusades ended in 1271, and what happened in 1291 the ...


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I think it comes from Daniel Rops or Regine Pernaud. After one of the largest cities (Acre?) was taken by the Muslims, the price of a young French sex slave in the Damascus market fell steeply, reaching the bargain price of 3 camels. So, even when soldiers got permission to march away, not all the people might get the same luck. Stragglers may not have ...


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