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Independent of political reasons, travel for private persons was greatly restricted until 1949. Churchill feared, correctly, that politicaly a division was being created by the Soviet Union to separate their area of influence from that of the Western Powers. Occupied Germany was still (in 1946) under common Allied control, so Germany was excluded by the ...


2

Lady Jane Grey (possibly reluctantly) attempted to upset the line of succession stipulated by Henry VIII being the Nine Days' Queen from 10 July until 19 July 1553 After the death of Edward VI (age 15), his sister Mary Tutor, based on the Third Succession Act of July 1543, was the intended successor. For political/religious reasons having a non ...


4

Are you asking if there were any usurpers in English history, when someone overthrows and replaces the ruling king? Or a person who is not the rightful heir of the king according to normal inheritance customs becoming king when the old king dies. Both have happened in English history. An example of the second is when King Richard I died in 1199. His ...


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Many, including William II, Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, John, Henry IV, Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I (i.e., were not next heir of previous monarch by primogeniture). Richard III is squishy. It depends whether Edward V and his brother were already dead. Note that I was explicit about how I interpreted "line of ...


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This has happened more than once. One of the earliest incidences was King Stephen. When his predecessor Henry I's heir died, he settled on his daughter Matilda as heir. At the time of his death, Matilda could be seen by that right as being "first in line of succession". But with the inherent misogyny of the time, England was not ready for a queen regnant,...


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This is what the War of the Roses was about. The Houses of Lancaster and York fought each other until the Lancaster branch went extinct. For a moment it seemed like things may have ended there -- which is to say, England moving on, with an usurper on the throne. But the House of Tudor inherited the Lancastrian claim, and its supporters ultimately prevailed.


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I saw your question and the one reason you can rule out is written in his own words. In his last letter to his wife March 29th 1098 he brags about having doubled the amount of money she had given him to go on crusade. If that were true why did he and the other crusaders in his charge have issues with food and equipment


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I believe the correct answer is Alfred Nobel, as you already surmised. .... Finally, [Nobel] tried diatomaceous earth, ..., that he brought from the Elbe River near his factory in Hamburg, which successfully stabilized the nitroglycerin into a portable explosive. Nobel obtained patents for his inventions in England on 7 May 1867 The additional ...


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Have you tried searching with different transliterations? Bulgarian is written with Cyrillic letters and German-speaking countries do not always use the same transcriptions as English-speaking ones. Transcriptions do also change over time, e.g. from Dimitroff to Schiwkow. I have found two results on Google. One is a long Polish text that has the same names ...


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We'd find them to be very short. People slept sitting, not fully laid down as we do nowadays. People were afraid if you would lay down as the dead, you'd be dead soon. I've visited several palaces. Those beds I found to be really short. The rich would have four poster beds. Partly for privacy (which wasn't an issue back then), but more for warmth. Close ...


3

Intaglio was a very common method of image reproduction between 1500 & 1900 and the resulting images were incredibly precise. It’s quite simple; 1. Cut into a hard surface (such as a copper plate) 2. Cover it in ink, wipe off the excess. 3. Press paper or fabric onto the surface, remove it and the image will have been transferred. Force from ...


6

If you literally mean "copied", (from an existing original, as opposite to multiplied) then the only method before the invention of photography was "by hand". I mean if you have a picture, and want to reproduce it, the only method was to redraw it, perhaps by putting a transparent paper over it, or using other technical means, like transfering distances ...


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