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See this as an addendum/answer to @LangLangC (I ran out of characters, otherwise i'd post it as a comment). Well I don't think it's that clear cut. First of all, the papal state itself was quite the power in Italy, which at the time was a very important region. Italy in the age of communes was among the wealthiest regions and one of the first to recover ...


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The Catholic Church was a powerful organisation. But it wasn't a secular superpower. That is quite evident when we look at the precarious situation pope Leo found himself in, when previous to the coronation he had to flee his home turf in Rome to Charlemagne. Leo just survived an assassination attempt and made a deal with Charles, the secular power of the ...


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The coronation of Charlemagne was important, but Charlemagne had the upper hand in his relationship with Leo III. Eastern Roman emperors were crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople. No one imagined the Patriarch was superior to the emperor. Nor should you imagine that the powerful Charlemagne considered himself anything but superior to the (quite ...


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This question is way too basic and can be answered with a single link: In 1912, New York, London and Paris traffic counts all showed more cars than horses for the first time. — Raymond A. Mohl: "The Making of Urban America", p124, Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. For personal traffic transport it was even: The turning point in the change from horse ...


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For central Europe, between 1925-1930 may be considered realistic. For France possibly sooner due to a higher motorized density between 1920 and 1930. The transition was uneven due to certain conditions commercial was faster than private motorised vehicles but the private use was probably a much smaller percentage than commercial, so in a city a ...


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