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Not a full answer, but I expect it to be useful until a better one shows up. Most of Greeks expelled from Turkey weren't expelled after the exchange was accorded but they were already in Greece (according to Wikipedia, that cites an article I can't read), as they had fled during World War I and the Greco-Turkish War. The Greco-Turkish war had been dotted ...


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They actually didn't care and it was normal at the time. Peasants may have inbred. Furthermore, only certain nobility were inbred. In Spain there were laws to protect the old Christian population from outbreeding. Obviously as the "pure" population declines core time things get worse and this is an expected result. Furthermore, even today scholars ...


1

A classic in the field would be Fernand Braudel's Out of Italy, 1450–1650, though if you are primarily interested in the Renaissance, I would likely pick an earlier start date to properly include the likes of Dante and Petrarca.


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Genetics was discovered in the 19th and 20th centuries. Half of an organism's genes come from its male parent and half from its female parent. Various genes can be good or bad for someone's health. If a gene is dominant, it will be expressed and effective if someone gets it only one parent. If a gene is recessive, it will be expressed and effective if ...


3

There were several major advantages in favor of the British. Better position. The British had a better western facing on the Atlantic. To get there, the Dutch had to navigate the North Sea or the English Channel, both of which were controlled by the British. The Dutch had the advantage in "eastern" (e.g. Baltic trade), but that was limited ...


3

France It depends on the country and language. In France, the abandonment of Roman numerals for months in dates was gradual over the 20th century (and is still not completely over in specialized contexts). In postmarks, Arabic numerals started replacing Roman numerals in months after 1945 and the replacement took at least until the late 1950s. This ...


1

With "Italy and France" you already have your answer, with the needed addition "at a few times, and in a few regions". That is: if at all. This type of gear became iconic in representations all over Europe, later, not in the medieval times. But its actual use was incredibly even more restricted in both time and space. The figure of the ...


1

Italy According to National Geographic the outfit (which includes the mask according to the photo in the link) was widespread throughout Europe, but most common in Italy. National Geographic Though plague doctors across Europe wore these outfits, the look was so iconic in Italy that the "plague doctor" became a staple of Italian commedia dell’arte ...


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